EDITORS'  INTRODUCTION

Thứ năm - 09/05/2019 06:32
Most Ven.Dr. Thich Duc Thien - Most Ven.Dr. Thich Nhat Tu
EDITORS'  INTRODUCTION





BACKGROUND

There have been major changes in world today and that the term Global Leadership and Sustainable Development is no longer taken for granted as a point of reference for understanding the contemporary chaotic situation. These disruptive changes mean that it is now arguable as to whether we still live in a world of justice, egality, peace and prosperity. The nature of these changes and the concepts of the Buddhist approach are central to the whole project of this book. In this light, we place great emphasis on understanding Buddhist teaching in dealing with this matter. We argue that any investigation of the changing character and context of the present time, needs to take account of the Buddhist philosophy. We focus on providing a thorough and critical understanding of change taking place as a starting point of discussion. In doing so, we attempt to clarify the nature of the Buddhist approach. It may be more productively understood as the result of a complex contested and fragile set of arrangements, which in this book we term as approach. We do not imply that the frameworks based on the Buddhist teachings are fully fixed and agreed by everybody. Rather it would refer to a set of arrangements that need to be further discussed.

Given the above, this volume collects together papers presented at the international workshop on Buddhist Approach to Harmonious Families, Healthcare and Sustainable Societies which took place on 13 May 2019 at International Conference Center Tam Chuc, Ha Nam, Vietnam on the occasion of THE 16TH UNITED NATIONS DAY OF VESAK CELEBRATIONS 2019.

The participants in this workshop were not representative of the mainstream thinking or conventional wisdom of this field, although this volume reflects this richness and diversity. Treating
 
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the Buddha teachings as a basic theoretical reconstruction, we examine the relationships between the societies and Buddhist responsibilities. We combine analyses of the conflicts, trends and dynamics affecting future development with more focused studies on a range of policy areas: migration, education, leadership, climate change, etc…

Two of our most crucial presumptions are that making Buddhism great again at the time of disruption is our first and foremost duty and the Buddhist responsibility can contribute to creating a new foundation for Global Leadership and Sustainable Development.

REVIEW OF CONTENTS
  1. Family Relations

Ujjwal Kumar examines the question Buddhist Approach to Harmonious Families: With Special Reference to Right Speech (Samma- vaca). He argues that human beings need to communicate to each other and this is done through the medium of speech. Therefore, we should learn how to bestcommunicate, that is without causing any misunderstanding. A powerful means of communication is important. Given this, he looks at the question of how linguists and the Buddha advised us do so. After presenting the nature of modern way and its impact of communication, he explains that sammāvāis a specifically designed teaching text intended to contribute to understanding this process. He concludes that using Buddhist principles of communication will allow us to improve our harmonious coexistence in the present world.

Sumedha Viraj Sripathi Ukwatta puts the question Application of Buddhist Teaching in doing Counselling for Children under review. In this paper, he tells us that we have now to pay more attention to the psychopathological and neuropathological problems more than ever before. Understandably, the Buddhist teaching was much more aware about the problems of mental illnesses with regard to emotion, cognition, behavior and motivation, that is, an effective analysis of human psychology could go along with therapeutic practices. In exploring these concerns, he discussed two main issues: motivation from the perspective of educational psychologists and right effort (Samma Vayama). In concluding, he is optimistic to
 


conclude that we need to apply the Buddhas counseling techniques in bringing up children for a better world.

H. M. Mahinda Herath examines the question of Buddhist Psychological Teachings for a Harmonious Family in a Sustainable Society. The focus of this paper is to explain the ethical teaching on harmonious family life as depicted in early Buddhism. In doing so, he collected the data from the Sutta Piṭaka and relevant books and articles. It is clear that the Buddhist Suttas make the point that we have conflict with others due to anger. This is harmful to oneself. To overcome this, he explains that everyone should look at others with pleasure, compassion and loving kindness. In this way, he concludes that these are valuable insights that help us to build a peaceful society.

Daya Dissanayake deals with the relationship between Buddhism and Motherhood. Two of his crucial concerns in this paper are: how Buddha explained Motherhood as a theoretical problem and how the followers accepted it as practical guidance. In reference to the Buddhist literature, especially in Karaniya Metta Sutta, Samyutta Nikaya and Maha Mangala sutta, he gives us more insight into the particular significance of motherhood. In the practical view, he demonstrates historical development of its practice in Sri Lanka and the relevance of Brahma-Vihara and Femininity. As motherhood deserves all our respect and be considered as sacred, he suggests us to learn more to respect all womankind. We shall then realize that every girl-child is a Mother-to-be and needs all our loving care as she grows up and such that respect for Motherhood will continue throughout our lifetime.

Prof. Dr. Tilak Kariyawasam, International Buddhist College, Thailand, deals with the issue Religious Minister - Vital Factor for the Composition of Family Unit. At first, he discusses the meaning of family, the smallest unit of society. If we need to change it for the betterment of society, it should come from the family itself. In doing so, he explores the concept of a religious minister. Based on the Buddhist teaching in Sigãlovãda Sutta, he highlights the worship of Six Directions. In this way, Buddha introduced a list of duties that should be fulfilled by each member in the family, such as parent and children, teacher and pupil, wife and husband, friend
 
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and companion, employer and  employee,  religious  minister  and his subjects directions. At a closer look, he explains the important role of the religious minister in the family in biological, sociological and psychological aspects. Finally, he concludes that the service of religious minister in family life is invaluable and inevitable.

Dr. Kavita Chauhan, Gautam Buddha University Campus, India, deals with Managing Family Issues concerning Householder: An Interpretation Based on Sigalovada Sutta. The main questions in this paper are: principles of family management, household management, traces of humanistic Buddhism and its application in the Sutta. After discussing the matters in question, he concludes that modern man can lead a happy and prosperous life if he understands the significance of the social relations explained in the Sigālovāda Sutta. Most significantly, Buddhism is capable of making a drastic transformation of the competitive society in advocating a well- balanced material and spiritual well-being, in maintaining a family and individual life and finally helping attain the ultimate stage of liberation or Nirvaṇa.

W.M Gayathri Panampitiya and E.A.D. Anusha Edirisinghe, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, explores Buddhism as a Tool for Psychological Adaptation of Female-Headed Households in Sri Lanka. The paper outlines that the development of Female- Headed Households (FHHs) in Sri Lanka is concerning. To respond to this rising challenge, the author identified Buddhist practices and how these would be useful for adaptation and change. In exploring their concern, an empirical study was conducted which conveyed a marked increase of FHHs and a highly climate affected rural area. The result show that 89% of the participants have tended to religious adaptation methods such as Shramadana campaigns for religion repairing pagodas, constructing religious buildings, arms giving and pilgrimage rituals to relief from critical stressful circumstances and to negative attitudes regarding life. In contrast, only 14% have tended to spiritual practices for mental concentration such as meditation practices. For this reason, they suggested that empowering psychological well-being is important for change. To do this, they suggest that Buddhist practices for mental concentration and counseling be promoted.
 


Sarath Chandrasekara, Sri Lanka International Buddhist Academy, Sri Lanka, identifies the Buddhist Emotional Quotient (Soft Skills) Used as Techniques for Buddhist Family Therapy. At first, based on sociologists and psychologists viewpoints, the current concept of a family is explained. This approach is helpful in dealing with matters of counseling and treatment. Based on the Sigalovada Sutta, she introduces the Buddhist therapy as a modern way of practice and an approach for prevention rather than resolution. It addresses the root causes, effects and provides ways to prevent issues from becoming conflicts. If the family members understand their duties in light of Buddhist ethics, they can easily lead the family life to harmony. In conclusion, she stresses that Buddhist soft skills need to be used as therapeutic techniques, as this is the most effective way to maintain harmonious family and sustainable societies.

Prof. Dr. Kyoung-Hee Lee, Director Dhamma Clinic for Psychosomatic Therapy, South Korea, investigates the Buddhist Approach to Harmonious Families in the Changing Society. His scope of research is mainly textual study whereas collected data was based on historical and comparative backgrounds. Conceptually speaking, family is a basic social unit, and its function is to perpetuate society through procreation and socialization. The early Buddhist scriptures tell us more about this illustration: parents are compared with Brahmā, Devas and the First Teachers. The Brahma- sutta and Sabrahmakāni-sutta, and Itivuttaka of Khuddaka Nikāya state the duty of supporting parents by children. Jātaka stories can give us suitable examples of therapy for families. Thus, faced with family disintegrationtoday, we are challenged by the task of social integration. In this light, he explains that Buddhism can be used as an integrative therapy for families. The approaches to trans- generational, structural, strategic and experiential solutions are relevant. To conclude, Buddhism supports harmonious families, boost the family-friendly society, and ultimately sustain society in the changing world.

Ven. Dampahala Rahula, Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka, deals with Buddhist Exegesis of Family Bondage and Stability of Social Cohesion. The main objective of his paper is to expose the family bondages and stability of social cohesion from
 


a Buddhist perspective. Philosophically speaking, a human is a social being and social cohesion has been based on so-called family bondages. After discussing Buddhist teaching in dealing with the matter in question, he concludes that Buddhist fundamentals convey ideas useful in living harmoniously with nature and neighbors and gives advice on dealing with each other. It is also necessary, to realize the aims of looking after ones own self and then looking after the interests of others. The way to realize all these goals is through recognizing Buddhist fundamentals.

HoangMinhPhu,InstituteofEducationandManagementHoChi Minh City, Vietnam, deals with the topic Contributions of Buddhism to Improving Interpersonal Relationships. After introducing some basic concepts related to interpersonal relationships, he describes the important role of Buddhist teaching for the young generation. Those youths that have a background and basic understanding of Buddhism, are likely to deal with the matter in question better than non-Buddhists in maintaining their interpersonal relationships. He concludes that there are significant differences between Buddhist and non-Buddhist youths in their relationships with their parents, their teachers and their friends. These conclusions are the result of his case study with 90 participants in Ho Chi Minh City. Based on the valuable contributions that Buddhism has for contemporary society, he appeals that Buddhist teaching programs be taught to everyone.

Swe Swe Mon, Sakyadhida Buddhist College, Myanmar focuses on the question Overcoming Conflict and Tension within Family: A Buddhist Response. Based on the sociological approach, he discusses that tensions within family life have three aspects that need to be explored: they are their development, their origins and causes and a Buddhist response to overcome them. In the light of the teaching from Samukhāvinaya, Samathakkhandhaka of Cūavagga, Vinaya Piṭaka and Sutta literature, he explains why problems may develop within family life, how parents should behave, how members of the family create a harmonious life, and most importantly, how Buddhist teaching could empower mental health and encourage better family relationships. In concluding, he stresses that family conflicts are inevitable and therefore we should try to find the Buddhist way to
 


best overcome conflicts and tension within a family and create a better life for aging parents.

Prof. Dr. Pataraporn Sirikanchana, Mahachulalongkornra- javidyalaya University, Thailand, investigates Duty and Compassion: Theravada Buddhist Approach to Harmonious Health Care and Sustainable Societies. After explaining that the meaning of duty and compassion are essential virtues for all human beings, he looks at the question of how we can secure happiness and peace. Based on the Buddhist teaching, he illustrates some practical guidelines for harmonious families, health care and sustainable societies in which everyone can be physically and spiritually developed. He gives us some examples of living conditions in Thailand as his case study. Finally, he concludes that through stipulated duty and compassion, we can develop our public mind and share responsibility of human beings, societies and the world of nature.

Ramesha Dulani Jayaneththis paper on the Buddhist way of living for sustainability: Harmonious Sri Lankan Family and Modern Challenges” delineates the relationship between Theravada Buddhism and the creation of harmonious family in Sri Lanka. She shows us how in Sri Lanka, Theravada Buddhism has strongly influenced familial relationships and conducts, emphasizing the respecting of parents and extended family, the mutual support of marital partners, and the caring of children. These values, however, have been affected by modernization, globalization, and social mobilization that engender changes in the structure of the family. To mitigate the changes in familial values, Jayaneththi documents the endeavors of Sri Lankan families and society to return to the moral roots of Theravada Buddhism through various Buddhist educational programs, including Buddhist Sunday schools, Dhamma programs on TV and Radio channels, and community programs.
  1. Child Abuse and Protection

Rev. Sangabopura Akhila, Buddhist and Pali University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka, explores Buddhist Attitude on Prevention Child Abuse for Sustainable Development. He examines the question of how to prevent the child abuse through Buddhist teaching. Based
 


on Vessantara Jataka, Tilamutti Jātaka, and Kēsi Sutta, he justifies that Buddhism gives us more insight into the matter in question. In fact, many Suttas in the canonical text relate to this topic as attitudinal manner. The most important point in this paper is that the Buddhist approach can be applied for preventing child abuse. In doing this, we all need to know our prima facie duties: every person has an ethical responsibility to prevent any kind of abuse or sexual harassment of a child. There is a social responsibility to safeguard children as a part of social compassion.

M.W. Jayasundara, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, discussestheUse of Singalovada Sutta for the Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse. He is concerned with the main causes of child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka and the significance of Buddhist guidance for parents. Based on the background of Singalovada Sutta, he conducted a case study in the agricultural district in Anuradhapura during 2015. In doing this research, he collected data from a random sample of forty victims using a questionnaire and interviews. These incidents cannot be seen as simple cases, because they refer to violation of laws pertaining to the protection of children. The paper notes that Sri Lanka has undergone a dramatic change with a serious impact on social control, and stresses that the protection of children has been ineffective and 80% percent of the children were victimized due to parental negligence. The rest of the victims had been affected through their deplorable living conditions. In conclusion, he points out that if the parents were able to follow the responsibilities illustrated in the Singalovada Sutta, then to a certain degree child sexual abuse could have been prevented.

Ms. Kaushalya Karunasagara, Sri Lanka International Buddhist Academy, Sri Lanka, deals with the question For a Sustainable Future: Buddhist Perspective of Child Protection With Special Reference to Theravada Buddhism. After presenting the main objective of this research project, she explains there is a wide difference among Buddhist philosophy in dealing with the matter in question and the way for people to follow it. In particular, after examination, she concludes that a Buddhist perspective can be applicable not only for Buddhist children, but also for each and every child in the world. For the future, she hopes that society will be a better place
 


when people treat all children as their own children, who need care and attention.
  1. Healthcare

Arun Kumar Yadav, Nava Nālandā Mahāvihāra, India, explores the Buddhist Approach to Harmonious Health Care. Using the background of Pali literature, he highlights the Buddhist approach towards the cause and treatment of various illness. His case study tells us more about the method and its effect. Some empirical evidences of case studies show that Buddha not only preached the doctrines for well-being, but also explains the causes of many malaises. Specifically, meditation technique is an effective therapy in healing many physical or mental diseases. In concluding, he advises us to follow the daily routine given by Buddha. In doing this, we can overcome many small diseases to reach a state of well- being.

Dr. A. Sarath Ananda, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka, focusses on the Buddhist Approach to Health and Well- Being: The Way Forward to Sustainable Future. He aims at identifying the Buddhist approach to healthy life. In doing so, he analyzes the knowledge of individuals on the Buddhist approach to healthy life. He looks at the question of how the health care system could establish and promote sustainable societies and how the Buddhist approach to health care could enhance the sustainability of human society. Finally, he suggests that this approach should be made available to individuals to understand the simplicity and the enormity of the Buddhist approach to healthy living and well-being for the betterment of all segments in society.

Prof.PadmasiriDeSilva,MonashUniversity,Australiainvestigates Lifestyle Enhancement and New Dimensions of Health Care: A Focus on Pain Management. His central concern is to look at the question of how to make lifestyle changes through meditation with a focus on pain management. Four features of his discussion are: creating a wide open hearted space for experience, tolerance and the ability to embrace pain with friendship, subliminal tendencies of  lust, anger and conceit and mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention. In the second part, he presents two approaches in dealing with the
 
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question of healing: Vidyamala Burch and Risa Kaparo. Both are the art and practice of embodied mindfulness. Notably, he concludes that the most important component was the practice of Vipassana meditation.

Manakada Kemananda, University of East, Los Angeles, USA, discussestheCurrentHealthIssuesandTheApplicationofGirimananda Sutta. Based on the particular meaning of Girimānanda Sutta, he suggests that we should consider it as an excellent deliverance from Buddha that elaborates identification of mind and body and imparts considerable understanding of healthcare from the Buddhist point of view. With reference to practical importance, he concludes that Buddhist teaching is strongly able play a vital role to overcome and solve current health issues, even in this sophisticated milieu.

Physical Health


Phramaha Boonchuay Doojai Phramaha Prayoon Chotiva-ro, Patitham Samniang, Mahachulalongkornrajavidyalaya University, Thailand, deals with the question the National Sangha Health Charter: A Mechanism for Buddhist Monk Health Promotion. The paper explains that Thai monks have to face health care problems, especially chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and hyperlipidemia. To respond to this situation, the objectives of this study were to describe processes for drafting and adopting a National Sangha Health Charter as well as to explore the possible ways of moving it forward. After discussing the situation, he concludes that a National Sangha Health Charter became a core framework, guideline and tool to drive and promote the Buddhist monks’ health and sustainable development of society.

Ven. Ayagama Siri Yasassi, Dharma-Vijaya Institute of Buddhist Studies and Oriental Languages Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, presents the Buddhist Concept of Food in Moderation for Global Health-care. To open with, it is outlined that millions of people are suffering with a  number of  ailments causeby poor  behaviour regarding consumption of food. In response, he highlights the valuable practice of eating food in moderation for maintaining a healthy life, in light of Buddhist teaching. Secondly, looking at the Buddhist perspective,  he  promotes  that  eating  behaviours  are  important.
 


While the economic theories on food production are constantly changing, nevertheless, Buddhism guides the society to control mind and senses individually, so that they can avoid bad habits of eating food and have a more healthy life.

Rev. Embilipitiye Suseela, University of Kelaniy, Sri Lanka looks at the prospect of “Euthanasia - The Medical Suicide” in a Buddhist Perspective. He presents many current viewpoints in medical literature related to Euthanasia. However, in the practical view, the matter in question has received many criticisms. To respond to this, he highlights the value of Buddhism in considering whether the concept of ‘Euthanasiais compatible with Buddhist teachings. By considering the Pali canon and Western medical literature, he offers a comparative analysis. In fact, some monks who suffered from incurable pain committed suicide and Buddha was silent in such circumstances. He concludes that the modern concept of Euthanasia is an action that could be taken by a patient who suffers from an incurable illness or agony under certain specific criteria. Therefore, though rejecting any kind of killing means directly or indirectly, Buddhism follows a positive attitude regarding the concept of Euthanasia.

The research paper Bhojana Sappaya: Mindfulness Consumption Practice Of Theravada Monks written by Nichaboon Charuprakorn studies the concept of Bhojana Sappāya described in Buddhist scriptures as the inter-relationship of three social facts: health, food, and religious aspects. As social facts, they form the ways of acting, thinking and feeling, which generally prevail throughout a society and to the individual. Bhojana Sappāya or Mindfulness Consumption focuses on four dimensions of health promotion – physical health, mental health, social health and intellectual health. A guideline for consuming food for well-being is also provided.

Emotional Health


Dr. Julia Surya, Smaratungga Buddhist College, Indonesia, explores the question of How Vipassana Meditation deals with Psychological Problem of The Anger Character in order to create a Peaceful Life. Based on the practice of vipassanā meditation, this paper enables those who possess the anger characterto create a
 
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peaceful life. He indicates that an intellectual analysis is needed to eliminate anger and this will lead to rational understanding. The basic tool for this is wisdom on the ground of vipassanā meditation. In attempting to break mindfulness’ down, we need to have three major components: in  a  particular  way  or  attitude;  on  purpose or intention; and paying attention. In fact, Vipassanā meditation is a technique of self-observation, truth observation and self- exploration. It is directed at all aspects of ones inner experiences. At last, she concludes that its practice enables one to eliminate psychological problems of an anger character and to create a peaceful life.

Chin Yi Chun, University of Malaya, Malaysia, looks at Buddhist Approach to Sustainable Societies Through Anger Control Methods. This paper highlights various Buddhist approaches to conquer anger emotion, where one may use any method that will work best in different situations. He explains that anger control is important in personal and social development by promoting emotional, physical and mental health, enhancing stronger and healthier relationships with others and  creating  a  harmonious  and  sustainable  society. In the light of Buddhist teaching, he justifies that sustainability means establishing appropriate material wellbeing, non-harming in economic movement, and realising inner freedom from suffering. Buddhism has a contributory role in shaping the ethical and moral concerns of people. More specifically, Buddhist psychology tells us that hate and ill will are negative emotions. To respond to this, Buddhism can provide a remedy for the negative effects of mental states.

Anand Pratap Singh & Jyoti Sharma, Gautama Buddha University, India, address the Effect of Mindfulness based on Cognitive Therapy for Emotional Well-Being among Young Adults. At first, they outline how emotions play a vital role in controlling a humans life. Young adults are now facing many challenges of monitoring and regulating their emotions, especially when they see the changing world around them. In their case study, they investigate the matter in question, utilizing a sample of 16 individuals who were also screened out for psychopathology. As a result, the mindfulness intervention is shown to be an effective way and it brings shifts in the regulation of
 


emotions.

Mental Health


Nguyen Trinh Thi Ai Lien identifies Psychotherapy for Criminal Psychology From Buddhist Perspective. The main issues of her paper are therising consequence of crime and the role of counselling in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy is one of the missionary works that all Buddhists can do for the welfare of all living beings. In particular it is the main responsibility of monks and nuns. She argues that this Buddhist method can make criminals and people better develop their  inner qualities and help to develop improved  powers such as concentration, mindfulness, compassion and  loving-kindness. She looks further at other important aspects for solution, and concludes that this work needs the cooperation of whole society, as maintaining social welfare is our prima facie duty.

Ho Thi Thu Hang identifies Meditation-Based Therapies in Mental Health for Wellbeing. She outlines that mental healthcare is one of the most burdensome issues in Western countries because disorder, anxiety, disorders, schizophrenia and intellectual disability are at their most catastrophic development. In response to this worrisome situation, there has been a huge interest in meditation-based technique for a treatment. Her main topics are: What is meditation? Is the meditation-based therapies useful? and do the meanings of Buddhist approach of meditation need to be promoted? With her empirical evidence in clinical studies, she urges contemporary practitioners in the West to revert to Eastern traditional practices in Theravada monastics. The reason for this is clear: clinical studies show the fabulous positive effects of meditation, not only following the best practice but also building successful business.

Ven. Polgolle Kusaladhamma, SIBA Campus, Sri Lanka, identifies the Utility of Buddhist Meditation to Overcome Physical Infirmity and Mental Disorder Based on Modern Neuroscience Researches. The main idea of this paper is to present the particular importance of meditation practice in regard to the human  neural  system  and body functions. In the theoretical view, the Buddhist practice of traditional meditation is based  on  philosophical  concepts.  On the contrary, scientific research tries to distinguish the Buddhist
 
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teaching and the empirical aspects of its modern practices. Taking a closer look, neurologists prove that meditation can result in making observable changes in the human neuron system. Notable health benefits gained include increased immunity, increased fertility, lower blood pressure, anti-inflammation, relieving irritable bowel syndrome, reducing physical pain, anxiety and stress and helping lower blood sugar.

Dr. Indu Girish, Gautam Buddha University, India, looks at the prospect of Mind in Harmony: Buddhist Perspective. This paper focuses on two crucial aspects: understanding and implementing Buddhist principles and adopting a suitable lifestyle. He promotes that the Buddhas teachings are valuable in nurturing the mental health of individuals as well as societies. In particular, the Buddha stressed not only to attain the highest state of health, but also achieving ultimate goals of life. In order, to grasp the Buddhist concept of mental health, it is pertinent to gain knowledge of the Buddhist world view. Arguably, the Buddhist way focuses on the mind in order to affect a change in human thinking, because that is the root of all our actions. In concluding, he quotes the teaching in the light of Dhammapada: We are what we think, all that we are arises with our thoughts, with our thoughts we make the world. Given this investigating and gaining more insight into Buddhist principles is our duty.

Dr. Jyoti Gaur, Samrat Ashok Subharti School of Buddhist Studies, India, focuses on the issue Building Psychology: Relating Buddhism to Modern Psychological Techniques. After offering a brief overview of the development of psychology, he discusses how the Buddhist knowledge and teachings are of importance in dealing with the question of modern therapy techniques. In exploring his concerns, he illustrates Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), Default Mode Network (DMN) and various other therapies as the most useful methods that are applicable for all age groups. Finally, he concludes that there is a great need to establish Buddhist theory and practices as an effective approach for future psychology.

Neekee Chaturvedi, University of  Rajasthan,  India,  explores the Buddhist Psychology to navigate the modern world. The paper investigates   whether   the   Buddhist   diagnosis   of   the   human
 


predicament and suffering is valid and the prescription is effective in view of current challenges. In doing so, he explores the functions of Buddhist meditation technique and its use to help to cope with stress, strife and unhappiness. He justifies these findings through psychological studies on modular theory of the mind. By integrating Buddhist philosophy with meditation practice this makes the therapy more effective and durable. Finally, he argues that the four noble truths and no-self that form the core of Buddhist psychological formulations, are the basic map for us to navigate the world today. As a result, he concludes that with the Buddhist guidance, we discover ourselves within the hidden reality of the world harmoniously.

Zhong Haoqin, University Hong Kong, examines the concept of Using Satipatthana Bhanana to Help Improve The Mental Wellness of LGBTQ People. The paper outlines how the living and support conditions of the LGBTQ people are of concern and they have to face issues with mental health care treatment. The main aim of this study is helping them fully accept their minority sexual orientation and finding psychological treatments for improving their wellness. Based on the Buddhist teaching, especially on the light of Satipaṭṭhāna bhāvanā and Kāyānupassanā, he discusses the mindfulness on the body as an appropriate therapy. After discussing the practical views of current developments in successful treatment, he concludes that meditation could improve the perception of self-esteem of LGBTQ people. With a faith in Buddhism and with dharma practices, LGBTQ people are likely to cultivate inner peace and wisdom.

Asep Yusup Indaviriyo, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, investigate the Buddhist Psychotherapy to Build Mental Health. The paper stresses that mental healthcare service is of vital importance for human living. In fact, we cannot separate physical healthcare from mental health care. The reason for this situation comes from greed, hatred, delusion and pain and modern therapies in Western medical tradition are unsuccessful. Faced with this challenge, he looks at the question of how the Buddhist meditation techniques could help relieve or even eliminate the mental issues of people. After discussing the philosophical teachings of Buddhism, he
 


concludes that Buddhist methods of psychotherapy could be best used to build mental health, most importantly, it would pave the path for the people to reduce mental stress that commonly occurs in modern times.

Lisa Tanaya, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka, deals with the Effect of Buddhist Psychological Healing Systems for the Torturous People in Sri Lanka: A Case Study of Nagananda Buddhist Ayurvedic Hospital. The main objective of this project is to focus on the system of how the Buddhist psychotherapy and counseling can be successful to heal clients within a short period in the clinic. He conducted a case study with a sample of fifty respondents in accordance with the random stratified sampling method based on gender, age, district, ethnicity, mental disorder and employment. Data gathered through the using questionnaire, interviews and analysis. As a result of this empirical survey, he concludes that Buddhist Āyurvedic counseling and healing methods is able to heal the variety of mental illnesses in Sri Lanka.
  1. Meditation and Other Buddhist Approaches to Care and Healing
Rev. Fuminobu (Eishin)  Komura,  Hospital  of  the  University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA, deals with the question Spiritual Care as an Embodiment of Buddhist Loving Kindness and Compassion Teachings: A Buddhist Chaplain´s Perspective. At first, he demonstrates that there is a relationship between the Buddhist teachings and chaplaincy, and that spiritual care is an enactment of Buddhist loving-kindness and compassion. He  notes  that spiritual care is an essential element of a holistic approach. Second, the Buddhist teachings give chaplains more insight into spiritual support to people in need. He gives three particular examples: Vimalakīrti experienced suffering because of the suffering of other sentient beings; Śantideva emphasized the inseparability of self and others; Saichō teaches us: forget self and benefit others.” These altruistic illustrations serve as role models for chaplains. Based on his experiences, he discusses the teachings of Buddha and the role of chaplaincy. Most importantly, chaplaincy would be a model of the bodhisattva path. Mindfulness can help them to be ready to serve
 


unconditionally. At last, he concludes that spiritual care can be regarded as an embodiment of Buddhist loving-kindness and compassion teachings.

Rev. John M. Scorsine puts the question Who cares for the Responder under review. He addresses the current theories to support the first responders and caregivers that answer the call. The doctors, nurses, paramedics, firefighters, aid workers, military members, and relief works are suddenly taken from their comfort of home, travel to austere environments to face head-on the demons of this disease, malnutrition, injury, and death. Given this, he looks at the question of what aspects of Buddhist teaching can be brought to these embattled persons, how the Sangha can participate to the caregivers and responders and what Buddhist chaplaincy can do. After discussing these questions, he comes to conclude that the Buddhist teachings could reduce the suffering of the responders and enable them to face with the suffering of people.

Dr. Sunita Devi, Panjab University Chandigarh, India focuses on Buddhist Rituals for Health and Healing in Western Himalayas: A Special Reference to the Shamans. This paper deals with the Himalayan art of healing that is followed by the local people. The traditional and cultural values of this therapy are historically particular. He explains the deep-rooted faith of the Buddhist monks who perform various rituals of shamanism that has been practised in the remote areas of the western Himalayas. Local people depended upon the healers for their physical as well as mental illness i.e. psychosomatic problems. Even after the introduction of modern therapy, the shamanistic tradition is prevalent in the Himalayas. Due to strong socio-cultural background, local still go hand in hand with traditional ritual healing with harmony. After illustrating some case studies, he concludes that Shamanistic tradition is still effective enough with time and is successfully performed from one generation to next.

Huynh Thi Kim Hong & Prof. Dr. Anjali Kurane, Savitribai Phule Pune University, India, present their case study on Buddhist Health Care from an Anthropological Perspective. They seek to highlight the Buddhist insights into maintaining physical health and promoting well-being. From a theoretical basis, they explore the interrelationships between physical health and mental state
 


in discussing the teachings of Vipassanᾱ meditation. In particular, they conducted a Case Study on the subject matter concerning Peoples Perceptions in Vipassanᾱ Meditation Center. The methodology used s is the technique of vipassana meditation in some cities in India and Nepal. They have documented the major changes of perception of the practitioners Vipassanᾱ meditation. At the empirical view, in examining the result in the context of developing mindfulness and controlling disease, they conclude that the participants are concerned with the issues of attachment, anger and delusion which cause psychological suffering.

Priya Rakkhit Sraman, Tufts University, USA, discusses the question Buddhist Chaplaincy as a Means of Buddhist Education, Practice, and Service for the Youth. This paper is concerned with the aspect of how Buddhist teachings and practices incorporate into chaplaincy work. In doing so, he addressed the various challenges that he has to come up in interactions with students and colleagues. He shows us that Buddhist chaplaincy is a useful way to teach Buddhism to the youth. According to his experience, he can talk about the multi-faith setting. In this way, he concludes that the admonition of Buddha to the disciples was also to live a life directed towards caring for others through their spirituality. We should find out different skillful means of utilizing our learnings and practices in the interest of helping more people. The Buddhist teachings are relevant and that motivate us to be more interested in our own learning and practice even more.

Ven. Raniswala Sunanda, Buddhist & Pali University Institute Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, presents a Comparative Study on Coaching in Buddhist and Western Psychology to Create a Sustainable Society. AfterofferingacomparativeanalysisoncoachingbasedonBuddhism and Western Psychology, he proposes a practical guidance to create a sustainable society. He argues that the Buddha was capable of using more intuitive and insightful knowledge of coaching. The compassionate words have been significant in helping to achieve the individual aims of a person. While on the other hand, Western psychology is useful in dealing with self-centred, empathic and intuitive listening. Based on his findings, he concludes that there are many similarities and differences in coaching between them. That
 


is the reason why we need to identify the effective way of proper coaching to create a sustainable society.

Thalpe Ge Indika Piyadarshani Somaratne, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka, considers the question: Thinking of Life Through Death, Buddhist Perspective on Death. Based on the Buddhist teaching in dealing with the mattei in Nibna, Petakopadesha and Nakulapitu Sutta, he highlights the question of how a person should overcome the sorrow of death. It leads to go beyond or transcend from death to the maximum and attaining minimum peaceful death. Therefore, the conclusion is that Buddhism contains a great spiritual assistance of profound clarification for the dying.

Dr. Jyothi Kakumanu, India, investigates Healthy Brain: Cognitive Transformation and Associated Neural Dynamic of Vipassana Meditation. In this paper, she provides insight into the neural changes associated with meditation proficiency and paves the way for the understanding of neural correlates of higher states of consciousness and well-being. In doing this, she evaluated changes in two facets of cognition - sustained attention (ability to focus attentional resources on specific stimuli for a sustained length of time) and attention switching (ability to intentionally switch attentional focus between stimuli). More specifically, she discusses three particularities of Vipassana meditation techniques. After stressing its efficiency, she concludes that these changes may be improved awareness and we need to identify further the neural sources of performance monitoring along with the meditation related neural networks activity differences.

Ven. Dr. Thich Nu Hang Lien, Vietnam Buddhist University, HCMC, Vietnam, discusses the Buddhist Meditation to Harmonious Family, Health Care and Sustainable Society. After presenting that meditation has spread throughout the East and West as a living art and is taught as a treatment technique, she comes to stress that Vipassana Meditation is the enlightened essence of Buddhism, that is the guiding principle of enlightenment towards the complete liberation from suffering. Based on the Noble Eightfold Path, we need to learn the practice of mindfulness. This is seen as the best way to help us to cultivate virtue, perseverance with the ideal and
 


promote talents. Lastly, she concludes that meditation in life brings people happiness.

Pannyavara, Bodhipakkhiya Forest Meditation Centre Myanmar, identifies Dhatumanasikara: An Analysis of Its Impact on Buddhist Practitioners of Myanmar. In his paper, he presents Dhātumana- sikāra as a mindful practice mentioned in the Kāyānupassanā of Mahāsipaṭ-hāna Sutta and the main practice of Bodhipakkhiya Forest Meditation Centre in Myanmar. As there are many ways of practice, his favorable objective is to offer the effective way of contemplation. After presenting the nature of the strategy required, he conducted a survey on Meditative Retreat Programs for sustainable positive changes.. As result of his case study, he concluded that Dhātumanasikāra is an insightful meditative practice for mindful leadership in order to receive enrichment of life and sustainable peace.

Phan Thi Mai Huong & Thich Nu Minh Hoa, Vietnam Academy of Social Sciences, Research Institute in Hanoi, Vietnam describe the Relationship Between Mindfulness and Perceived Happiness of Monk and Nun in Students in Vietnam Buddhist University. The Buddhist mindfulness is the most popular term indicating a state of maintaining awareness in the present. Many foreign studies have shown a positive correlation between mindfulness and happiness. In the Buddhas light, The University of Buddhism in Ho Chi Minh City conducted an innovative investigation with the same objective. This case study was specifically designed by involving 64 students who were monks and nuns. Its purpose was to find out empirical evidence of the relationship between mindfulness and happiness. The research tool was a questionnaire survey consisting of the scales of Mindfulness, Happiness, and demographic information. Using factor analyses, correlation and regression, the study has pointed out three components of mindfulness and concluded that mindfulness directly had a positive impact on the perception of happiness or indirectly resulted in monk and nun students’ feeling of happiness by reducing negative emotions.

Ram Kalap Tiwari, K.S. Saket P.G. College, India, deals with the topic of Effect of Mindfulness Practices on Working Memory Capacity and Verbal Reasoning of College Students. The purpose of
 


the project was to examine the effects of mindfulness practices of 80 undergraduate students from Saket College, Avadh University, Faizabad. They were randomly selected to participate in the study. OSPAN and GRE measures were applied to the participants. Results of this case study indicated that a three-week training program would increase working memory capacity and superior reading comprehension on GRE. This training also improved cognitive function and minimized absent-mindedness of college students.

 

Most Ven.Dr. Thich Duc Thien Most Ven.Dr. Thich Nhat Tu


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