5 TOWN PLANNING METHODS INCLUDED IN THRIPITAKA VS THE MODERN TOWN PLANNING METHODS IN SOUTH ASIA

Thứ năm - 09/05/2019 13:25
by M.W Nimesh Sathsara






 
TOWN PLANNING METHODS INCLUDED IN THRIPITAKA VS THE MODERN TOWN PLANNING METHODS IN SOUTH ASIA

by M.W Nimesh Sathsara*






ABSTRACT

In the modern South Asian countries, serious problems have occurred due to wrong town planning methods. This has caused loss of valuable time, good mentality and also inconvenience in carrying out day today activities. Planning is a process of thinking about activities required to achieve a desired goal. In planning, not only the conceptual skills but also the psychological aspects should be considered. The issue with the modern South Asian town planners is that they focus only on the physical development of facilities, but they pay a blind eye to the psychological aspect of it. On the contrary, in Buddhist teachings, the real sustainable development depends on both the physical as well as psychological approach. I used primary and secondary information for my research .The present research thus discusses the town planning methods included in Tripitaka to overcome the faults of the modern South Asian town planning. The Buddha advises a lot on town planning. When he preaches, Arogya pramalabaheemphasizesbeingpsychologicallyaswellasphysically healthy to be the ultimate wealth of people, and there he describes the importance of the environment necessary for such healthiness. In the Vanaropa Sutta, the Buddha points out the importance of forests in purifying air but unfortunately we see how some main



*. University of Sri Jayewardenepura Pail and Buddhist Department (Buddhist civilization sp), Buddhist and Pail university Sri Lanka (English Higher diploma) Dharmacharaya, Sri Lanka.
 


cities in the modern societies like Colombo, Islamabad, Beijing are polluted and there are related problems like high temperature, acid rains, dust, etc. All these have been caused because of deforestation but ironically the European world is planning to implement green town projects. In considering the idea behind these, it is clear that what the Buddha preached 2600 years ago in the Vinaya Pitaka, Senasanakhanda, Vatta khandaka have been their basis. Even if the Buddha concentrated on the planning of monasteries, they can well be used in town planning even in the modern world. According to Mahawansa and Deepawansa which are two main chronicles in Sri Lanka, in the 3BC, the teachings of the Buddha were the basis for planning the Anuradhapura city. At the present also we can get some ideas about proper town planning according to the Buddhism in ancient anuradhapura city.Buddha preached on garbage controlling for proper sanitation, and in the vattakkhandakaya the planning of lavatories is explained. The preaching on the jantagara (steam bath centers) for the healthy life of the monks could be used in planning the steam massage centres which are mushrooming in modern cities now. Moreover, the advice to fix windows in proper places, and not to throw garbage into water are some important teachings of the Buddha in maintaining a hygienic society. Unfortunately, people in the modern era are infected by various kind of diseases because of the faults of planning the commonly used facilities. Thus, it can be concluded that the modern town planners can take the town planning method in the Tripitaka as their guide in planning modern towns, especially in the South Asia.
***

In the modern South Asian countries, serious problems have occurred due to wrong town planning methods. This has caused loss of valuable time, good mentality and also inconvenience in carrying out day today activities. Planning is a process of thinking about activities required to achieve a desired goal. In planning, not only the conceptual skills but also the psychological aspects should be considered. The issue with the modern South Asian town planners is that they focus only on the physical development of facilities, but they pay a blind eye to the psychological aspect of it. These are the some main problems in south Asian cities. We can understand it,
 


understanding after these problems in south Asian towns. South Asian countries are India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Maldives, Bhutan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Afghanistan.

INDIA (DELHI, MUMBAI)

Some of the major problems of urbanization in India are, 1. Urban Sprawl, 2. Overcrowding, 3. Housing, 4. Unemployment, 5. Slums and Squatter Settlements, 6. Transport, 7. Water, 8. Sewerage Problems, 9. Trash Disposal, 10. Urban Crimes, 11. Problem of Urban Pollution.

SRI LANKA (COLOMBO, MAHARAGAMA, NUGEGODA)
There are lot of problems in Sri Lanka main cities, they are:

Flooding


Colombo has been built on low lying land .for many years.it was contained by a swath of swampy land and east. It could not expand but at least there was place for the water to go. With the opening up of eastward expansion in the 1980s the wetlands got filled up. The canals were neglected and the storm water drains went into disrepair .the result is flooding for the slightest rain, Kolonnawa and Kotte the canal system needs not just repair, but rehabilitation.

Traffic congestion and air pollution


The main urban transport issue in Sri Lanka are traffic congestion, environmental pollution, increase of traffic accident ,poor public transport system, and weakness of road networks.an estimated around 830,000 people arrive to the Colombo city from outside every day of this 90 percent arrived by road and rail way carrying approximately 80,000 or 10]of this demand .the road passengers enter the city through 12 roads with 56] of all passengers arriving by bus and the others arriving by private vehicles such cars 11], and motor cycles 5]and hired vehicles such as three wheelers and vans 18] presently around 15] of the road space utilized for bus transport even through it transport 62 of the road passengers; on the other hand 65] of road space is used by private hired vehicles which in sum totally carry only 38] of the passenger, in addition to the vehicles entering the city. There are further 250,000 vehicles
 


registered within the Colombo municipal area. Colombo city plays a great role in economy of the country. Number of people gathering placessuchasgovernmentandprivateofficers,shop,factories,hospitals, hotels, schools, and the main harbor located within the city.

Private transport modes such as motorcycle, three wheelers create congestion on the road in Colombo city. The congestion issues can be considered as the outputs produced by attracting people and vehicles for the activities in the city. These output interact within the prevailing socio economical environmental and produce negative out comes. For an example, output such as traffic congestion consume higher amount of fuel and also emits higher amount gaseous emotion to the environment polluting air in surrounding. Therefore it can be concluded that the traffic congestion leads to two negative impacts of fuel wastage and air pollution in economic and environment sectors respectively.

Surveys carried out from 1965 show that until 1995 the annual increase in the number of persons arrive to the city on daily basis has been increasing by around 5] annually from 1995 it has been observed decrease signifying that business are moving out of Colombo city to more accessible suburbs such as Moratuwa, Nugegoda, Kiribathgoda, etc., which are now becoming unplanned commercial areas, these in turn are causing congestion along the major roads, (Weerawardana, J, 2009).

Practically parliament road, Colombo Kandy road, Colombo Galle road, Colombo Nugegoda road and Nawala Narahenpita road are more congested due to private vehicles, people use their private vehicles to go to office or business since unavailability of optimum public transport services in their routes .especially in peak hours traffic congestion in more complicated. A study identified potential areas of demand on trips attraction and generation with Colombo municipal council and found that on average 30000 trips in fort 25000 trips in slaves island, 25000 trips in Maradana, 20000 trips in petah, 20000 trips in colpetty, 20000 trips in cinnamon garden s,13000 trips in borella,11000 trips in town hall, and 10000 trips in Bambalapitiya are made many city roads with increasing traffic demand for road space is clearly seen have reached critical proportion in urban traffic.
 
 

Road capacity problem


The road infrastructure in Colombo city and its suburbs are difficult to further widen new roads can be built keeping with the rate of demand created by people who are shifting from public transport to private transport ,the inability to obtain the required land road space, parking spaces etc. are fast becoming contrasting that are severely restricting the flow of vehicles which far exceed the capacity of the road system to efficiently discharge the demand, as a result around 70] of the length of the national roads within the 10 km radius from the city center is congested throughout the day ,the average speed on these roads falls below 15 km per hour (Weerawardana j, 2009). At such speed, fuel consumption doubles, increasing air pollution as well. On the other hand speeds, fuel consumption doubles, increasing air pollution as well. On the other hand widening or building new roads cannot be accepted as a solution of managing travel demand since Colombo and its suburb already contains lengthily road network providing several accessing option from single specific location, it indicates that Sri Lanka is having Colombo municipal council and its suburb exceeds overall value of Sri Lanka equaling to a value 3.48 km2 beside that the higher population density of 17.40 pop km2 is also clearly indicates the difficulty of land acquitting for further road development activities,

Country

Road density km/km2

Population km/1000
Population density

1000/km2
Nepal                   0.13                 0.71              0.18
Pakistan                0.33                 1.73              0.19
Bhutan                 0.95                 1.01              0.94
India                     0.20                 5.71              0.04
Sri Lanka               1.01                  2.78               0.36
Colombo              5.40                 1.80              3.00
(Weerawardana .J, 2009)

Experiencing practical limitation in developing of highway  is a common issue particularly in urban areas. As an alternative solution
 


for this ,it is given priority to increase effectively and efficiently of the public transport service. In this context integration of transport is vital for linking of different modes transport in order to cater the passenger demand for the outside city centers, integrate public transport mean high transits modal share with sea less service using two or more modes, therefore it is necessary to have proper management of present travel demand the Colombo city.

PAKISTAN  (KARACHI,  ISLAMABAD)

Karachi and Islamabad are the most populated cities in Pakistan. Threatening air pollution is additional, uncontrollable transport poses one of the greatest problems. The huge number buses, mini buses, rickshaws and ever increasing private conveyance is the cause of traffic congestion and accident. And broken roads, water problems, unable to widen and strength its water supply network, frequent power failure, educational and government offices works are delay.

BANGLADESH

Bangladesh is considered the worlds most populated country with 2,639 people per square mile. Dhaka, the capital, is one of Asias fastest growing cities, with a population currently around 15 million. With some 400,000 new residents arriving each year from rural areas seeking a better life, Dhaka is straining under the pressure of its rapidly swelling population. Already, this megacity faces rising real estate prices, growing g slums, poor quality housing, unreal traffic jams, nagging electrical blackouts, stifling air pollution, poor governance, inadequate clean water supply, and poor sanitation. If population estimates hold true, Dhaka is expected to grow to 20 million by 2020, making it the worlds third largest city.

As this megalopolis grows, clean water supplies and effective sewage removal will be critical to the health and success of Dhaka. Today, some 4 million squatters who live in slums do not have legal access to basic services, such as safe water and toilets. These people often are forced to rely on unsafe well water provided by slum lords or buy water from water sharkswho peddle bottled water from small vans. The sanitation situation is equally severe. Almost two-thirds of the Dhakas sewage is untreated and left to seep into waterways and the ground. Hanging latrines, which dump waste
 


directly into waterways, and neglected public toilets, are common here and are extremely unhygienic. The results of life in these filthy and sub-human environs are not surprising: each year thousands upon thousands of people in Bangladesh, including 50,000 children, die of cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, and other waterborne diseases.

This reporting project will look at the water, sanitation and hygiene problems that Dhaka is facing today, as well as the people and grassroots projects who are pioneering simple, effective life- saving solutions to the mounting sanitation and hygiene challenges of this mushrooming megacity.

The capital Dhaka is experiencing one of the highest rate of urbanization in the world. Over the years, the city has had inconsistent transformation of land use and organic development which in turn created crisis in residential areas or neighborhoods and affected the city life adversely. Bureaucratic problems, political influence, lack of appropriate mechanism for land development for the residential areas, ineffective implementation, poor supervision and monitoring system are continuously creating problems for the citizens. Dhaka citys common problems are increase in water pollution, traffic congestion, air and noise pollution, solid waste disposal, black smoke, etc. Inadequate drainage sections, conventional drainage system with low capacity and gravity, natural siltation, absence of inlets and outlets, indefinite drainage outlets, lack of proper maintenance of existing drainage system, and over and above disposal of solid waste into the drains and drainage paths are accounted for the prime causes of blockage in drainage system and waterlogging.

In addition, seasonal tidal effect and the topography of the city are also causing water logging. The storm water becomes polluted as it mixes with solid waste, clinical waste, silt, contaminants, domestic wastes and other human activities that increase the water-borne diseases. The stagnant storm water leads to the creation of breeding sites for diseases vectors that become a hazard to health as well as being unsightly and foul smelling. Open dustbins on roadsides overflow with garbage. Roads and drains go under knee-deep water not only in monsoon but also after a sudden shower. The housing
 


shortage is so acute that one third of the citys population lives in slums. Parks and open spaces are gradually disappearing.

NEPAL (KATHMANDU)

The personal interesting or to willful ones personal of the people at the cost of others rights, dignity, health, safety, and socio-cultural values can be called Social problems; such as Girl trafficking, forced, smoking in public, gambling, unwilling physical relationship between two individuals of opposite sex, drug misuse, violence, against women, theft, robbery, kidnapping, murder, rape, corruption, drinking alcohol and misbehaving in public places or at home places these are the examples of social problems. Such social problems are greater hindrances to make the peace, well-being, development of our country, security, harmony etc.

AFGHANISTAN

We can understand Afghanistan city problems deep studying of Kabul city.
Kabul city problems (air pollution).

Kabul province is one of the famous cities in our country and the city is surrounded by mountains. Around 4 million people live in Kabul city. As the effect of an increasing in population, Kabul city has caused many problems such as air pollution, increase of vehicles, housing shortage and high prices of rental homes in the city, which are problems with people living in the city.

One of the most serious problems is air pollution. The contamination is problematic for public health, and film hundred daily respiratory problems according to the hospital authorities. There are several causes of high air pollution in Kabul, for instance, lack of green place and the loss of trees, fuel of vehicles, smoke from factories near the town, in the absence of city power which leads majority people to use gas instead of using any other fuel like coal and wood to heat their homes, existence of garbage in the city, some of the crude roads, and other fundamental cases of air pollution in Kabul city.

After the understanding of every issues in south Asian towns, we can give some applications from Buddhism to resolve these problems.  On  the  contrary,  in  Buddhist  teachings,  the  real
 


sustainable development depends on both the physical as well as psychological approach. The present research thus discusses the town planning methods included in Tripitaka to overcome the faults of the modern South Asian town planning. The Buddha advises a lot on town planning. When he preaches, Arogya prama laba” he emphasizes being psychologically as well as physically healthy to be the ultimate wealth of people, and there he describes the importance of the environment necessary for such healthiness. In the Vanaropa Sutta, the Buddha points out the importance of forests in purifying air but unfortunately we see how some main cities in the modern societies like Colombo, Islamabad, Delhi are polluted and there are related problems like high temperature, acid rains, dust, etc. All these have been caused because of deforestation but ironically the European world is planning to implement green town projects.

In considering the idea behind these, it is clear that what the Buddha preached 2600 years ago in the Vinaya Pitaka, Senasanakhandhaka, Vattakkhandhaka have been their basis. Even if the Buddha concentrated on the planning of monasteries, they can well be used in town planning even in the modern world.

In the Senasanak khandhaka of Vinaya Pitaka it describe how to use correct land for make the buildings. It describe before creating buildings. Town planner must understand about quality of land, it describes buildings must create top place of the land, it helps to protect buildings from flood. Also it describe how to create good drain system in the town, we can use this technique to decrease problems in the city. We can find great example from Sri Lanka in the 2016 Kelaniya area. It creates from wrong drain system planning in town. Senasana khandakaya also describe how to create windows in the town planning, they describe windows must put out side of the road, that techniques use for reduce dust level in town areas.

Vanaropa Sutta describe how to create green city. It describes the importance of growing plants. Trees give us good shelter and protection of water resources in the land Also it helps to reduce acid rains, dust.

Vattakkhandhaka also describe how to create good sanitary system.  We  can  use  Buddhist  methods  to  decrease  sanitary
 


problems in town areas ,dengue ,malaria and mosquitoes problems and Polluted in good water resources are some problems in town areas. Vattak khandaka describe higher ordinated monks cannot put garbage, excrement and urine in to water. It is a great idea to reduce polluted water resources. In the Anuradhapura era Hattakuchiya temple had water filtering method it established they used to Buddhist teachings to create their monastery. Also Vattakkhandhaka describe throwing garbage everywhere is very bad habit. Lots of mosquito problems also create from the bad management of garbage. If people practiced it we can destroyed mosquito problems in city. Garbage problem is the other main problem in the city side, in the Pattakamma sutta describe recycling methods in Buddhism we can use it to recycle the garbage. Traffic is the other main problems in south Asian city sides we can destroyed it using Buddhist practices, Buddhism give more place for public property if we used public vehicles in city sides we can destroy traffic. People in the modern era are infected by various kind of diseases because of the faults of planning the commonly used facilities. Also we can practice mind concentration methods to clear our mind it helps to decrease accidents, also Buddhism gives great explanation about the every issues, and every issues are creating from wrong management of our desires like Lobha (greedy, hatred, delusion). Thus, it can be concluded that the modern town planners can take the town planning method in the Tripitaka as their guide in planning modern towns, especially in the South Asia.

According to Mahawansa and Deepawansa which are two main chronicles in Sri Lanka, in the 3BC, the teachings of the Buddha were the basis for planning the Anuradhapura city. Buddha preached on garbage controlling for proper sanitation, and in the vattakkhandakaya the planning of lavatories is explained. The preaching on the jantagara (steam bath centers) for the healthy life of the monks could be used in planning the steam massage centers which are mushrooming in modern cities now. According to, the advice to fix windows in proper places, and not to throw garbage into water are some important teachings of the Buddha in maintaining a hygienic society. According to all such evidences I can establish that Buddhist teachings can apply for destroy issues in south Asian city sides. Anuradhapura town planning is a great example for it.
 


 

References


Chullawagga paliya Waththa khandakaya, 2006, government press, Colombo.

Chullawagga  paliya  Senasana  Khandakaya,  2006,  government press,  Colombo.

Deega nikaya “Maha Parinibbana sutta, 2006, government press, Colombo.
Pattakamma sutta , 2006, Government press, Colombo. Sanutta nikaya, 2006, Colombo, Government press.
Rohitha  Amarawitharana  “E”  W,  2017,  Buddhism  and  diseases management, dehiwala, sri dewi printers.

Sanutta NikayaVanaropama sutta, 2006, Colombo, government press.

Samarajiwa, Rohan, Colombo problems and solutions, the island newspaper, 10th September 2011.

62

Tổng số điểm của bài viết là: 0 trong 0 đánh giá

Click để đánh giá bài viết

Những tin mới hơn

Những tin cũ hơn

Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây