4.111. GLOBAL  LEADERSHIP AND SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES

Thứ sáu - 10/05/2019 22:13
Most Ven. Dr. Thich Duc Thien
​​​​​​​Most Ven. Dr. Thich Nhat Tu
 
GLOBAL  LEADERSHIP AND SHARED RESPONSIBILITIES





BACKGROUND

Humans are now facing many major problems such as the rising number of conflicts around the world, deteriorating environment, inequality, depression, etc., that need to be addressed urgently and completely in a way towards establishing globally sustainable peace. The Buddha taught that everything exists in relation to others, so all humans and nations around the world ought to collaborate and take the right responsibilities to deal with all the problems we are facing. Of course, global leadership plays a crucial role in not only resolving the world issues, but also guiding the world to walk on the right path, which pleases all sentient beings in the period of the 4th industrial revolution.

The participants in this workshop were not representative of the mainstream thinking or conventional wisdom of this field, and this volume reflects this richness and diversity. Given the above, this volume collects together a number of papers with a diversity of aspects and in the light of Buddhism, that were presented at the international workshop on “Global Leadership and Shared Responsibilities for Sustainable Societies” which took place on 13 May 2019 at International Conference Center Tam Chuc, Ha Nam, Vietnam on the occasion of THE 16TH UNITED NATIONS DAY OF VESAK CELEBRATIONS 2019.

SHORT REVIEW OF CONTENT

Keynote Speeches


Mr. Vu Khoan, former Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam proposes  the  discussion  on  Vietnam  accompanies  the  global Buddhist community in striving for a peaceful and sustainable development world.” He has assessed the adversity of the world including moral issues, increasing social evils, ethnic contradiction, religion, armed conflict and natural disasters, which refer to the opacity (avidya), and greedy motives of these problems. The author calls for Heads of State as well as the world community to rely on Buddhist philosophy, to repel evil, fulfilling the UN Millennium Goals, to develop a sustainable society and peaceful world. The author suggests that Buddhist organizations should apply active solutions from the UN Vesak Celebration into their nations life and contribute to the change for a better world in a healthy and sustainable way.

Prof. S.R.Bhatt, Chairman, Indian Philosophy Congress, India, discusses the relevance of the Buddhas teachings in solving the major existential issues that modern society faces: “Buddhist approach to global leadership and shared responsibility for sustainable societies. The author notes that humanity is currently at a crossroad between the development of science and the deterioration of our values. In this crisis, he proposes that Buddhist teachings are the cure to fixing the worlds problems. Using the Buddhas values such as self-sameness with all, harmonious living, shared responsibility, and universal compassion, we can eradicate all the suffering of the present-day corrupted materialistic contraption and build towards a global sustainable existence.

Luangpor Khemadhammo  offers  his  personal  experience with his interesting narratives: Buddhist leadership: A hands on perspective, focusing on the two organisations that he has helped found and led since their inception. The first is Angulimala, the Buddhist Prison Chaplaincy which is active in the prisons of England, Wales and Scotland; and the second is TBSUK - the Theravada Buddhist Sangha in the UK. He asks: So what have we to learn, both from what we know of what the Buddha taught and from practical, personal leadership experience? He concludes that if Buddhism is to assume a Global Leadership role, it will be by the impressive example of Buddhist countries and communities. He hopes that we can persuade our lay people to live by the five precepts and demonstrate that by simply applying Buddhist 
standards of morality people can be safe and communities can live in peace and harmony: then we can change the world.

  Global Dynamic Leaders: A Buddhist Perspective

Most Ven. Thich Nhat Tu from Vietnam Buddhist University lays stress on the Five Principles of global leadership. For him, to become a global leader, a leader must have a global vision and a global mindset without limiting his ideas in family, community, country and region and to open the interactive vision and connect to all world-class activities. He warns that intercontinental and intercultural conflicts; religious conflicts have prevented many countries from being unified because of the conservatism in their traditional culture, which has become a barrier to other countries and cultures. He advocates that modifying behavior is creating interaction but does not impact on independent voices. The biggest obstacle of global scope arises from language, culture, religious ideology, and political ideology. He asks us to find and overcome these external obstacles, adapting to global social, geographic, geopolitical, psychological, religious, religious ... influences.

Professor Le Manh That proposes the discussion on Buddhist contribution to good governance and development in Vietnam.and refers to the case studies of Buddhist contribution to the theory proposed by five statesmen, namely Zen Master Pháp Thuận, Zen master Viên Thông, Emperor Trn Thái Tông, Buddha-Emperor Trn Nhân Tông and Lord Nguyễn Phúc Chu. The author has addressed how, from a general Buddhist theory, the five Vietnamese Buddhist statesmen exploit and develop their own new theories of state governance and development, which have enduring historical values and are still applicable today in Vietnam, despite having many concepts still open for discussion.

Peter van den Berg looks at the aspect of Leading with wisdom and Buddhist practice. This paper focuses on the issue of Buddhist leadership and how it will be beneficial for humanity. In this context, Buddhist wisdom and its practice has been dealt with and involves three dimensions of leadership viz. charismatic leadership, moral leadership and strategic leadership. The author has highlighted the benefits of all three dimensions of leadership for the benefit of 
humanity because Buddhist leadership is inspired by the Dharma along with moral leadership to show compassion for others. The paper also explores Buddhist practice to stimulate openness of mind and the understanding of the cause and effects of behavior by analyzing karma. The paper highlights the three dimensions of leadership with wisdom in the context of positive outcomes and in the light of  Buddhist practice.

Garbo Karsai discusses Buddhist approach to global leadership and shared responsibilities for sustainable peace. The authors goal is to carry out a wide analysis of the challenges the modern world faces under the lens of Buddhism. The research paper explores further into the current challenges of the modern world, as well as delving into the deep theoretical understanding of what the Buddha thought and taught in this context. The paper further analyses how contemporary Buddhism relates to these challenges, while discussing if and how Buddhist leaders can offer a solution and/or if Buddhism itself also requires any transformation.

Amrita Nanda explores the topic of Exclusivism and parochialism in Buddhist perspective. The author argues the need to foster more cooperation between major Buddhist traditions and believes that if Buddhism survives, it will have a greater impact on the world order. The paper contends that differences in mutual cooperation between the two traditions have developed for two reasons, firstly Exclusivism, and secondly, Parochialism especially to focus on a local area with narrow-mindedness. The author has also explored many different ways of presenting the Dhamma as promoted in early Buddhist discourses. The paper further highlights that Exclusivism and Parochialism arise from both a lack of education and a communication process to resolve these two issues. Apart from a change in educational curriculum, more dialogue among the followers of Mahāyāna and Theravāda Buddhism can help to resolve these issues.

Devin Combs Bowles analyzes Dependent origination and migration: The need for Buddhist leadership. This paper outlines how Buddhist wisdom and leadership could help stop environmental degradation and foster compassion for those peoples adversely affected by it. The paper gives further details on how the ecological 
systems lead to increasing global temperatures. The author explains how Buddhist wisdom and core concepts can be used as a tool to alter these trends and examines the issue of citizens from developed countries and their concerns about refugees and related issues, in the light of Buddhist leadership.

G.T. Maurits Kwee deals with the question of What if Buddhists lead the world?The paper examines the global outreach of Buddhism and its ultimate role in handling the burning issues of the globalized world through education to counter ignorance on self-knowledge, boost wisdom and self-leadership which soften greed and hostility. The paper calls for financial liberation by creating a “Buddhist Bitcoinwhich should be usable across borders and in remote areas of the globe with the idea that a Buddhist world economy comes into being, if 500 million Buddhists form a coalition of the willing to use it. Buddhist leadership targets self-leadership that works toward self-awakening by self-therapy and secures autonomy by crypto self-banking, thus sharing responsibilities and sustaining Buddhist societies worldwide.

Leena Seneheweera explores The Buddhist approach to global leadership and shared responsibilities for sustainable societies of people with disabilities in the western and oriental world: Through Buddhist music and architectural design. The paper discusses issues on elements of global leadership and shared responsibilities for sustainable development, which can be traced back to the Buddhas political philosophy. In this research paper, the author introduces Buddhist architectural designs and music to initiate leadership and share responsibilities for non-Buddhist laymen in the Western and Oriental society. The study further, analyses the facts under experience-based findings in the context of music and architectural designs, as a tool for healing spirituality from the Buddhist perspective. The study goes further to recommend using all activities linked with therapeutic processes and Buddhist leadership and shared responsibilities as the fundamental factor to build a sustainable society for the young generation of the future.

Robert Szuksztul presents a paper entitled Elements of Buddhas political philosophy in the Pali canon, and its relevance for the global leadership issues and sustainable political relations. The author discusse
the Buddhas teaching as depicted in the Pali Canon with some important observations on the ways of proper government and political engagements. The paper also defines explicit teachings and targets as social and political relations with the right leadership to advocate values. The area of human concern, far beyond the human realm into the world of nature is also highlighted. The author is of the view that Buddhist teachings certainly are the proposition that delivers a more stable and predictable future where nations discuss their goals based on rules set together with other nations and are seen in principle as equal partners and not as enemies.

Nguyen Ngoc Tien discusses A vision for the youth development and leadership: A critical study of the young Siddharthas renunciation”. This paper looks at the Siddharthas life from a human perspective, to help to inspire young people to reflect on their life values, including personal growth, lifestyle, and leadership. In this paper, the author outlines the great accomplishments as the foundation of life. These accomplishments are based on principles such as inculcating ethical conduct among youth and also foundation and leadership traits to encounter and overcome challenges of life. The paper, also explores the idea of how Siddharthas renunciation can be used as a source of inspiration for young people in various forms, which proves that anything is possible.

The topic of Empowerment of women: early Buddhist perspective is outlined by Meena Charanda. This paper studies the aspects of empowerment of women as depicted in Buddhism and examines the role of women in Buddhism. Through this paper, the author explores new avenues of research on the basis of Hinayana literatures and highlighted the Buddhist perspective on empowerment of women with special reference to early Buddhism.

Nguyen Thi Que Anh presents the results of The basic studying of the influence of Buddhism in global leadership and sustainable social development. The author firmly determines that Buddhist compassion and wisdom as the tool for effective solution of social and human issues in many ways; helping humanity to get rid of suffering and lead to happiness and fullness. The growing influence of Buddhism is clear, when the Vesak International Organization Committee now comes under the Economic and 
Social Committee of the United Nations. This opportunity helps spread out Buddhas message of compassion, wisdom, peace and non-violence throughout the world and promote global leadership and sustainable social development. The paper concludes with an impression that Buddhism meets the requirements to be considered as the future religion i.e. global religion.

Manish Prasad Rajaks paper The Enlightened leader: An insight into Buddhist leadership model for 21st Centuryaims to bring forward the Buddhist philosophies that have existed for centuries in the teachings of Buddha and incorporate them into modern leadership and provide an insight into the Buddhist view of leadership for a holistic and sustainable future. The noble Eightfold path along with the ethical (Buddhist lay ethics) principles and the ten perfections (as laid down in the Jatakas) provide an effective tool for integration with modern theories and develop a holistic model for exemplary leadership that can bring a paradigm shift in the World leadership front to ensure sustainable peace and stability. This paper attempts to develop a practical and universal leadership framework based on the Buddhist philosophy, which can address various issues that are being faced in our times.


  Sustainable Societies

Most Ven. Thich Vien Tri explores The adaptability of Buddhism to the changes of modern societyin the fast moving and technology obsessed era, also called the 4.0 IR era and throws light on many questions which gradually come up for debate and discussion. The author also discusses the future of Buddhism in this present era and its role to meet human needs in this era of 4.0 IR. The paper deals with every aspect of the 4.0 IR era from a Buddhist perspective and draws from the teachings of the Buddha to outline his points of view.

Arpita Mitra discusses Gender equality and sustainable society: A Buddhist view for modern world. This paper introduces the Buddhist view on gender equality from various sources ranging from the past to the present to show that Buddhist precepts are designed to upgrade the equality of an individuals mind. The paper puts forth a core Buddhist idea which affirms the basic nature of 
the human mind. The study confirms that a spiritually nourished woman is capable to counsel families, meditate disputes, endure safe communities, set public policies and build a sustainable society through implementing Buddhist values of tolerance and compassion.

James Bruce Cresswell details Global citizenship and sustainability: a contemporary model of Buddhism. The paper explores the various aspects of global citizenship and sustainability with the focus on profit and economic growth with the purpose to re-examine the objectives and rationales for growth and to be aware of other priorities. The paper further tries to deal with ideas and models for the development of people and institutions as a fundamental prerequisite to attain sustainable development. The author also discusses Buddhist theory and practice in order to achieve these outcomes and explores how Buddhism can play a major role. Further emphasis is placed on ancient wisdom-based teaching, which contains the potential to transform not only the individual but also societies and environments.

José A. Rodríguez Díaz analyzes The contributions of Buddhists to building more harmonious and sustainable societies. This paper examines how Buddhists contribute to the building of better future societies with a focus on those attitudes and actions that aim at improving social interrelations and helping to create environmentally sustainable societies. The author explores the meanings and practices of Buddhism regarding trust and relations to others, war-peace and environmental protection issues. The theoretical and methodological approaches  used  in  the  paper are the result of combining, and in some cases fusing Buddhism with Sociology. This paper aims to contribute with insight into knowledge of the social structural forms taken by a complex system of interconnections and influences among multiple views and actions towards others. The paper provides the analysis of the interconnections between all Meanings and Practices, using the social network analysis approach and yields a map of Buddhist social DNA which portraits the ways through which Buddhism contributes to the creation of more harmonious and sustainable societies.
 
Rajni Srivastava deals with New challenges: Buddhist proposal for sustainable society. This paper explores the Buddhist response to challenging situations, where any type of major changes brings with itself a sense of uncertainty and Buddhism not only pacifies but also gives skillful methods to handle difficult situations. The paper is divided  into two parts  with the firspart dealing with contemporary issues and Rawlsconcept of a sustainable society. While the second part considers the Buddhist proposal for a sustainable society, where Buddhism has become a leading voice on global issues. The paper has a discussion regarding two important questions: What are real threats for sustainability?, “Is there a new inspiration for sustainability in Buddhism?” Both these questions are very important for developing required solutions and achieving sustainability.

Dr. Thich Hanh Chon describes Buddhist contribution to sustainable social development. The author examines the most pressing issues in our society today: rising insecurity, crime rate and most remarkably, notes that many counter measures have been unsuccessful. For this reason, the Buddhist approach is proposed as a solution with linkages to promoting goodness, practicing Buddhist ethics and protecting the environment, balancing the life through practicing the Middle Way, promoting gender equality and the doctrine of dependent origination.


Mindful Leadership and World Peace


Benjamin Joseph Goldstein presents the topic of Moments to mind: Principles of Buddhist leadership and the process of cognition in the Sautrāntika school. The essay is an abbreviated analysis, bringing Buddhist teachings into dialogue with some modern perceptions of leadership. The author proposes that by adopting the Sautrantika school of thought, highly effective leaders can emerge. Buddhist leadership is manifested through the course of actions following Sautrantika thoughts such as process of cognition and understanding mind events to further support the individual leader. The understanding and learning how to control the variance of klésas helps one to become a better leader. In conversations with Buddhist leadership, the paper demonstrates how sustainable peaccould be achieved if one chooses to engage themselves in a degree of self-reflection and transformation.

Ven. Dr. Jinwol Dowon discusses How to achieve mindful leadership for sustainable peace through Josaseon (patriarchal zen) practice. The paper firstly reviews Josaseon practice in Korea, which was transmitted from India through China, as a classical and genuine meditation, to achieve mindful leadership and sustainable peace. The paper points out the way of practice of Bodhidharma by reviewing the Outline of Practice, which indicates that “to enter by practice refers to four all-inclusive practices. The paper says that mindful leadership could be one of the valuable contributions to promote mindful leadership for sustainable peace and provide benefit for all sentient beings and Earth.

Samatha Ilangakoonl looks at Buddhist theory of peaceful coexistence. The author argues that the conflicts around the world are rising and worrisome. We need more urgent solutions for these than ever before. In this way, the Buddhist approach for peace may offer a better alternative to discuss and the theory of Dependent Origination. More specifically, this theory means that nothing in the world is independent, everything depends on others and everything exists on others. Religion and nationality are also interdependent. Given this, we assume that diversity brings beauty and the Buddhist approach is effective to apply.

Phe Bach & W. Edward Bureau analyze Three-intertwined paths to leading for sustainable peace. Sustainable peace anchors itself in mindfulness of the present, the people, and the microcosms in which we exist. Rather than existing as a static state, peace is organic and dynamic, flowing itself around the vagaries of un-peacefulness. This paper explores the paths one by one with the aim to emphasize the similar importance of each path leading to sustainable peace. Peace can sustain us in our circular journeys through systems and time.


Family and Healthcare


Kyoung-Hee Lee examines Buddhist approach to harmonious families in the changing society. The prime objective of this paper is to examine the Buddhist approaches to harmonious families for sustainable societies in the contemporary changing world order. The paper is mainly a textual study where the collected data was observed on an historical, comparative, and critical bases with the purpose to highlight the Buddhist approach to create harmonious families in the changing society. The author also deals with the concept of family, family as a social unit and its function is to perpetuate society through procreation and socialization. The paper also highlights the basic factors that lead to the crisis of family disintegrationand social integrationwhich are the current challenges that have to be taken care. In this paper, an approach is to put forward on how Buddhism can be regarded as an integrative therapy for families by approaches to transgenerational, structural, strategic, experiential, solution focused, and narrative therapies.

Pataraporn Sirikanchana details Duty and compassion of Theravāda Buddhist approach to harmonious families, health care and sustainable societies. This paper introduces the Theravada Buddhist approach to harmonious families, health care and sustainable societies. In order, to secure happiness and peace in ones life, Buddhist teachings provide a social member with guidance in which everyone can be physically and spiritually developed. Throughout the paper, the writer also provides the meaning of duty and compassion and how they are supportive to family and society. Through duty and compassion, we can develop our public mind and share responsibility of human beings, societies, and the world of nature. We thus enjoy being with our environment and can live with others happily, creatively and harmoniously.

Padmasiri De Silva explores Lifestyle enhancement and new dimensions of health care: a focus on pain management. This paper proposes new ways to make healthy lifestyle changes through meditation with a focus on pain management. When available therapies do not apparently work, mindfulness opens a new entry toward offsetting stress, tension and anxiety. The writer states that a radical transformation of the Western psychological tradition in dealing with pain management has taken place. This shift has seen the acceptance of the Buddhas perennial insight that the severity of suffering depends on our attitude towards it. Based on this foundation, the paper has two major parts covering firstly
a therapeutic approach to pain management, which involves developing a new mindset on how pain is dealt with, and the second part of the paper presents the contributions of leaders in the field of pain management covering examples of both theory and practice.

John M Scorsine focuses on the question of Who cares for the caregivers and responders?This paper addresses the current theories and initiatives meant to support the first responders and caregivers that answer the call. The paper puts emphasis on what aspects of Buddhist thought and understanding can be brought to these embattled persons that pursue the Bodhisattva ideal. How can the Sangha participate as caregivers and responders? What role can be played by Buddhist chaplaincy? The paper studies the teachings of Buddhism, which could be brought into action to reduce the suffering of the responders and enable them to carry-on each day faced with the suffering of thousands and not succumb to the visions of pain they are grim witnesses to everyday.


Education and Environment


Amarjiva Lochan highlights Buddhist education in Southeast Asia: Crisis and remedies. The paper presents the humankinds craving for peace and sublime happiness and that proper and caring education can be the only answer. Buddhism being the greatest interest drawer for peoples daily religious behavior, its educational teachings are prevalent and in abundance in Asian Buddhist vocabulary. The paper looks at the crisis pervading within Buddhist education in general and its status in Southeast Asia. Remedial issues are also explored and discussed in this paper.

Pahalawattage Don Premasiri proposes the idea of Universally valid ethical norms of Buddhism applicable to global education in ethics”. The paper deals with the hindrance in determining the basis for global ethics education, and the facts about the diversity involved in ethical norms, principles and attitudes held by different global communities that is characterized by their own traditional cultural and religious backgrounds. The author discusses the inherent characteristic of Buddhist teaching with a humanistic approach to ethical life, emphasizing the importance of the autonomous capacity of each individual to determine what is ethically right and 
wrong in conformity with the perceptions of all such enlightened humans ‘Knowledgeable Persons. The paper puts emphasis on the necessity to draw the attention of educators to train the minds of people globally for determination of human ethical choices and the accord with such decisions.

Prof. Dr. Karam Tej Singh Sarao looks at Buddhist approach to responsible consumption and sustainable development. The paper examines that there armany common grounds between the goals and ideals of ECOSOC and the teachings of the Buddha (Buddhavacana). The paper proposes that  the  Buddhavacana has much to offer in terms of sustainable development and can contribute towards the efforts of ECOSOC. Further on, the author also shows that the current globalizing system promotes competition rather than cooperation. In this paper, it is shown that a society founded upon the Buddhist Dharma recognizes that one should aim at promoting the good of the greater unit to which one belongs, and as a minimum, one must not look for ones own satisfaction in ways that may cause harm to others.

The framework of right consumptionis presented by Prof. Dr. Gábor Kovács. The planet is now in a new epoch of its history, the Anthropocene, in which humanity exerts enormous impact on planetary processes. Human activities put a huge pressure on the earth  systems structurand functioninwith detrimental consequences. According to the patterns of great acceleration, socio-economic trends have been deteriorating and that changes the future of the planet and the future of Humanity. A decisive part of the socio-economic system beside production and distribution is consumption of energy; water usage, fertilizer and paper consumption and the consumption of various services have been exponentially increased. In respect to sustainability, the central role of consumption was recognized by the United Nations as ensuring sustainable consumption and production patterns. The paper maintains that Buddhism should and can respond to the stressing issues through responsible consumption i.e. right (sammā) consumption that is understood as local, wise and mindful and also gives an opportunity for practicing the virtues of sharing (na), contentment (appicchatā) and moderation (mattñutā).
 
 

Buddhism and 4.0 Revolution


Peter Daniels discusses The aspect of the 4th industrial revolution: a Buddhist perspective for sustainable societies and wellbeing. The focus of this paper is to analyze the development of the 4th industrial revolution, the emerging of physical and digital world (eco, socio, and environment) in the perspective of Buddhism for sustainable societies and human wellbeing. It comprises a preliminary Buddhist- influenced analysis of the 4.0 industrial revolution and likely consequences in terms of environmental impacts and fundamental aspects of the root causes of samsaric suffering. Mindfulness and awareness of the real sources of wellbeing (and hence suffering) are key aspects of the Buddhist-inspired analysis of relevant effects and identification of responses to guide the 4.0 industrial revolution.

Geoffrey Bamford deals with Reacting to the 4th industrial revolution: Sidestepping determinism. The Fourth Industrial revolution is more or less equal to the digital revolution of the world in late twentieth century. This era has influenced everything in the world in a drastic way and Buddhist heritage is not excluded. The Fourth Industrial Revolution introduces advanced technology in all sections, such as retrieval of artifacts, recording of artifacts, storage, exhibiting, transportation and marketing of artifacts with digital technology. This is highly utilized by the dealers of antiquities in Asian countries and auction houses in the West, especially in London and New York. The paper examines how it has been utilized in all these phases and how Buddhist antiquities are being sold in the Western Market by looting and illicit trading, this has affected Buddhist Heritage. Finally, a practical solution to minimize illegal trade of Buddhist antiquities and a proposal to minimize looting and trading of Buddhist heritage is out-lined in the paper.

Prof. David Blundell provides An overview of Buddhism in Monsoon Asia: Digital/Spatial Humanities and Conservation of Heritage. The paper brings together studies that illustrate digital/ spatial approaches for the conservation of heritage across regional economies and bridging distinctions between cultures. Geography continues to play an important role in dynamic global environments of multicultural diversities ranging across  very  different  regions that  increasingly  find  heritage  as  common  denominators.  The 
paper also highlights early historical evidence of trade networks of Austronesian navigators circulating in the Dharma in the Indian Ocean, mainland and island Southeast Asia, and China. This coincides with work on Lewis Lancasters Atlas of Maritime Buddhism as a project of the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) with Jeanette Zerenke and other Austronesia Team member utilizing geographic information systems (GIS).

Alex Amies brings a discourse of The building blocks for open ecosystems of online resources serving Buddhist communities. The paper gives an overview of the state of the art software building blocks for development of online resources serving Buddhist communities and how those are driving new capabilities and broadening access. The central theme described is the huge scale and rapid evolution of the open source movement and modular package management systems that are built on open source software. The author hopes that the evolving technologies can bring more improvements to Buddhist resources, including large-scale translation of the Chinese Buddhist canon and the collected works of Venerable Master Hsing Yun to English. An additional impact is the broadening of access to high quality scholarly resources beyond the academic community to the monastic and lay Buddhist communities.

 

Most Ven. Dr. Thich Duc Thien
Most Ven. Dr. Thich Nhat Tu


 

Tổng số điểm của bài viết là: 0 trong 0 đánh giá

Click để đánh giá bài viết
Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây