17 THE USE OF SINGALOVADA SUTTA FOR THE PREVENTION OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE

Thứ năm - 09/05/2019 05:35
by M.W. Jayasundara




 
THE USE OF SINGALOVADA SUTTA FOR THE PREVENTION OF CHILD SEXUAL ABUSE

by M.W. Jayasundara*




ABSTRACT

Family is one of the main social institutions which provides enormous support for the survival of the human kind. As functionalists point out family plays certain specific functions which need for the survival of the society. Murdock defines family as a universal institution which is characterized by common residence, economic cooperation, reproduction and sexuality.

Child sexual abuse includes molestation, incest, rape, prostitution or use of a child for pornographic purposes. Child sexual abuse is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, is unable to give informed consent to or for which the child is not developmentally prepared and cannot give consent. It should be noted here that every year more than 3.6 million child sexual cases are reported to the child protection authorities in the world. In Sri Lanka, 1469 child abuse cases were reported to the National Child Protection Authority in 2014 and another 2160 cases were related to cruelty to children. It is reported that over 50% of sexual abuse related offences against children had been committed by a parent, caregiver or other relative and in 80% of cases the abuser is known to the victim. In Sri Lanka, sexual rape of children and incest has gradual increase except for the year 2015 from 2012 to 2016. Sexual abuse of children shows


*Professor, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Sri Jayewar- denepura, Sri Lanka.
 


similar pattern. In 2012 it indicates that 1208 cases while it has increased up to 1459 in 2015.

The objective of this study was to identify the main causes of the child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka and to identify the significance of the use of guidance given in the Singalovada Sutta specially for parents to protect their children. This study was conducted in agricultural district in Anuradhapura in 2015. For this study data were collected by using random sample through the use of interviewer administered questionnaire and in-depth interviews with the forty victims of child sexual abuse and their parents. Further, this study has utilized case study method to collect data from several victims.

The incidence of child sexual abuse cannot be perceived as a simple social problem as such incidences directly refers to violation of vital social norms as well as laws pertaining to the protection of children. Sri Lankan society has undergone a dramatic change with a serious impact on the social control that it had through the cultural and social structural arrangements. The protection of children which had been assured by the traditional social organizations seems to have collapsed. The findings of the study revealed that 80% percent of the victims had been victimized due to the parental negligence and lack of protection for the children. The rest of the victims had been affected their living environment and the nature of parental jobs and their unhealthy practices. The conclusion of the study was that If the parents were able to follow the parental responsibilities illustrated in the Singalovada Sutta child sexual abuse would have been prevented up to certain degree.

1. INTRODUCTION

Family is one of the main social institutions which provides enormous support for the survival of the human kind. The name familyrefers to a husband a wife and their children and it is called nuclear family. An extended family includes more than one generation which composites a husband and wife and their children and grandchildren. As functionalists point out family plays certain specific functions required for the survival of the society. Murdock defines family as a universal institution which is characterized by common  residence,  economic  cooperation,  reproduction  and
 


sexuality. As Murdock defines the family, its co-residence exemplifies the household which includes married couple and their children.

It is a common phenomenon that the impact of industrialization coupled with urbanization has changed the family structure from extended family to a nuclear family. Even within the nuclear family both parents do not live within the family unit due to various reasons. Of some parents especially the husband is employed in Armed services within the country or abroad. Still others work as travelling salesmen or travel abroad frequently and they reside in the family for a short period of time of the year. On the other hand, women discharge two functions, their traditional marital role and their new responsibilities in the work force. The mother of the family is often employed abroad as house maids or blue-collar workers who visit their family during their vacation which they normally get once for two or three years. Those mothers who work abroad leave their children in the motherland with the husband or some other relatives. Sometimes those guardians of the children become perpetrators of child sexual abuse or they fail to provide required protection for the children. There are some other families whose parents work some distance away from their homes and they get together at the weekend or at the end of the month. In some other families, children live in boarding houses to facilitate attendance in schools and other educational institutions. In this scenario, parents are compelled to leave their children in a single parent family or in the houses of their relatives. Consequently, children do not see their parents at home regularly and also they do not get parental love and affection or advice and the required security for their life. In traditional societies the members and the relatives of the family lived in the same village or in the same area and they shared many things with neighboring families and they had mutual dependence with the rest of the community for their living and protection. As a result of industrialization and urbanization the traditional life has changed rapidly. The structure of the family has changed from extended family to a nuclear family system and the parents have to look after and protect their children by themselves.

Before we discuss about the child sexual abuse, it is appropriate to verify who we identify as children. Oxford Learners dictionary
 


defines child as young human being below the age of puberty. But we can see different societies have given particular age limit to demarcate a child from an adult. In many countries, under eighteen year individual is considered as a child. In Singalovada Sutta, four vices of conduct has been identified as killing, stealing, lying and sexual misconduct pave the way for destruction. Here we can identify child sexual abuse as sexual misconduct as exemplified in the Singalovada Sutta.(Narada,1996).

Child sexual abuse seemed to have been a long existing phenomenon in many countries of the world. The world history shows that children had been treated with cruelty without paying them any special concern. In ancient times, children had been scarified to the gods, or at times brutally beaten, neglected and starved. With the aim of population control, infanticide was practiced. Female infants were valued less and they were killed at the birth or prenatelly. Sometimes poor families mutilated their children to make them pitiful beggars. At some time of the world history many children were sold into slavery for a parental profit. In higher strata of families children had been used as political hostages, security for debts and negotiable assets. The young children were forced to marry to facilitate the parental acquisition of property. During Greek and Roman era, through Biblical times as recently as the rise of Calvinism, children were subject to death penalty for offences against their parents (Pogrebin, 1983:44-45).

Child sexual abuse is not confined to any particular social class or social group. But it is difficult to answer why people sexually abuse their own children or others siblings. As history reveals, children have been considered as their parents’ property or fathers property for centuries. Under the Roman Law the children below the age of a major had legal rights and the concept of patria potestas’ of roman law had been given authority to father to control their children. Until the 19th century, the father had the authority of using children and their mother as a household property. Consequently, father owned childrens labor and their earnings as well as their physique. As the head of the family the father was responsible for those who belonged to him for their upkeep, their behavior, and he was expected to protect them.
 


In the case of incest, the girl was the fathers property or his commodity. Although the incest had been prohibited by ecclesiastical law until the nineteenth century, it was not crime against property in the eyes of either the perpetrator or the law. As a result, incest was rarely reported or condemned. It was the father who decided whether the incest was a crime or not. In case of an outside person who committed a child sexual abuse, the court had taken it seriously in the late 18th century and the early 19th century. During this period the women had taken steps against child sexual abuse than their men (Clark, 1987: 49). According to Clark, it was the period during which sexual violence took place mostly against women and children in new industrial areas.

During the 19th century under the canon law those who were convicted of incest were punished with solemn penance at church or in the marketplace, bar-legged, bare-headed, and wrapped in a white sheet for two or three years. After the abolition of court church in 1857 in England, incest remained as a legal act until it was declared as in England in 1908. During that period incest was considered as great fun (Gittins,1993:173).

The issue of incest had first become a social problem by the end of 19th century mainly due to the widespread middle class concern over the social, economic and health of the working class.

According to a research conducted by Linda Gorden on social welfareagenciesinBostonbetween1870and1980(Ferguson,1998) the social workers were well aware of the existence of incest as a form of family violence. With the introduction of compulsory education for children and the outlawed child labor, the parents control over his childrens labor power and training started to diminish. The State has taken the overall responsibility for the physical and moral welfare of children through its formal institutions, such as schools, police, health etc. However, parental supervision and guidance on children remain as an integral part of culture.

Today we are living in a world where children are subject to inhuman exploitation by market forces and thereby becoming the victims of social evils such as crimes, AIDS, and civil wars. A sustainable human development requires a clear focus on children.
 


The capacity for human resources of a nation depends on the efforts and investments they make on their children. As children play a decisive role as productive agents in future development, they need proper care and guidance to improve their creativity and leadership development. Investment in children now is therefore an economic necessity since they are an integral part of development in future.

Although widespread poverty in societies have been cited as the major cause for child deprivation, children cannot wait until poverty is reduced. Actions taken today to improve their mental health and physical capacity will help loosen the grip of self perpetuating poverty. However, it is argued that if the present patterns of child deprivation are to continue, about 500 million child death will occur in South Asia over the decade (Ferguson, 1998). It is also reported that a large number of children have been denied of access to better education and other human rights and are subject to various kind of abuses. Hence, the progress in the wellbeing of children ultimately requires progress on many fronts- progress in the battle against poverty in the struggle of economic growth, end of gender discrimination so on. The break down of traditional social security and welfare of children provided by the extended family structure has made vast impact on child sexual abuse. However, it is our moral and ethical responsibility to make use of the communication, technology and knowhow we already possess to save the lives of children and help develop the potentials that add up to the future of our nation.

Abuse of children take place in various forms including child domestic labor, bonded labor for commodity productions, girl trafficking, sexual abuse, forceful recruitment of children by armed groups, verbal abuse at household and at community level. The use of children in trades such as begging is also common all over the world. In Sri Lanka, the child abuse takes place in all forms mentioned above. But some types of child abuses are prevalent and more severe than others. Relative to the other countries in South Asia, the Sri Lankan government over the last 40 years has been able to provide adequate social services to its population: the country is considered to have the best educational system in South Asia, with a relatively high attendance of children in school, and
 


health services that reach the majority of the population. Peoples access to media is quite high throughout the country.

Nevertheless the country has poor records in protection of children from various types of abuses. In particular, the sexual abuse of children is taking place in households and at community and social level. Especially, the social levels, economic and cultural factors force some individuals and communities to engage children in sex trade or sexual abuse. This study focuses on the impact of changing pattern of family on child sexual abuse in the country.

In general terms child sexual abuse is defined as sexual contact with a child that occurs under one of the following three conditions:
  • When a large age or maturational difference exists between the partners;
 
  • When the partner is in a position of authority over or in a care-taking relationship with the child;
 
  • When the acts are carried out against the child by using violence or trickery.

Another definition suggests that child molestation is also a form of child sexual abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses a child for sexual stimulation (eu.wikpedia.org/wiki/child-sexual-abuse).

Child sexual abuse includes both touching and non-touching behavior. All sexual touching taking place between an adult and a child is known as child sexual abuse. According to medical definition child sexual abuse encompasses four basic types of maltreatment namely child neglect, physical abuse of a child, emotional abuse of a child and sexual abuse a child (https//www.medicinenet.com/ script/main/art.asp?)

Among all forms of child abuses, child sexual abuse is considered the least frequently reported act. Many scholars believe that child sexual abuse remains the most under reported type of child maltreatment for such activity is surrounded by secrecy and the conspiracy of silence.

However, there is no universal agreement about the exact details of such a definition. For example, how large the age or maturational
 


differences must be. Obviously, individual and cultural factors play a special role in child abuse. But there is widespread international agreement about most of the common kinds of situations that confront us in actual practice: sexual practice between adults and pre-pubertal children, between parents and their offsprings, and sex acts against children using force and violence.

Child abuse means physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of children by parents, guardians or the others who are responsible for a childs welfare. Sexual abuse includes molestation, incest, rape, prostitution or use of a child for pornographic purposes. Child sexual abuse is the involvement of a child in sexual activity that he or she does not fully comprehend, such a child is unable to give consent for an act which he/she is not developmentally prepared. Child sexual abuse is as evidenced by an activity between a child and an adult or another child who is by age of development holds a relationship of responsibility, trust or power for the activity committed.

2. PROBLEM STATEMENT

The incidence of child sexual abuse cannot be perceived as a minor social problem as such incidences directly refer to violation of vital social norms as well as laws pertaining to the protection of children. The law alone is not going to protect the children and the social structure and the organization of society are responsible for a considerable contribution to the peace and order of the society including the protection of victims.

Sri Lankan society has undergone a dramatic change with a serious impact on the social control that it had through the cultural and social structural arrangements. The protection of children which had been assured by the traditional family centered social organizations seems to have collapsed and the existing society has not yet replaced it with a modern system of child protection. This research study is concerned with these social phenomena and make an attempt to explore and explain the phenomenon of child sexual abuse stemming from this anomic situation. Accordingly, the central research problem is to understand the collapse of existing traditional kinship system based social control described by the Singalovada Sutta and the resulted opportunities for the victimization of children who are left without
 


proper child care system.
  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It should be noted here that every year more than 3.6 million cases are reported to the child protection authorities in the world. The United States has one of the worst records among industrial nations losing in average between four and seven children every day to child abuse and child neglect. In every ten second, one case of child abuse takes place in America and the most prevalent form of child abuse is given below.
    • Physical abuse 28.3%
    • Sexual abuse 20.7%
    • Emotional neglect 14.8%
    • Emotional abuse 10.6%
    • Physical neglect 9.9%

Accordingly it can be concluded that the second highest form of child abuse is the child sexual abuse.In Sri Lanka, 1469 child abuse cases were reported to the National Child Protection Authority in 2014 and another 2160 cases were related to cruelty to children. It is reported that over 50% of sexual abuse related offences against children had been committed either by a parent or a caregiver or other relative and in 80% of cases, the abuser is known to the victim. The following table shows the details of the forms of sexual abuse taken place in the country on annual basis.
 




Table: 1 Grave Crime Committed Against Children - 2012 to 2016
Type of Sexual Abuse 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Rape/Incest  of Children 1861 1835 2008 1654 1685
Unnatural Offences/ Grievous Sexual Abuse 758 790 560 833 716
Sexual Exploitation of Children 122 571 377 75 49
Sexual abuse 1208 1258 - 1459 -
Obscene Publication relating to Children 14 03 - 08 -
Attempting to commit sexual harassment 31 40 - 20 -
Source: Administration Reports of IGP, Sri Lanka. 2012-2016

According to the above table sexual rape of children and incest had gradually increased from 2012 to 2016 except for the year 2015. Sexual abuse of children shows similar pattern. In 2012, it indicates 1208 cases while this has increased up to 1459 cases in 2015.

It is worth noting here that no one can explicitly conclude that it is only the incidences of child sexual abuse indicated in the above table which occur annually in Sri Lanka. Because child abuse is a hidden crime and above table indicates only such data reported to the police. However, it is clear that crime against children such as rape and incest, unnatural sexual abuse and grievous sexual abuse, sexual exploitation of children and sexual abuse, obscene publication relating to children, and attempting to commit sexual harassment against children often take place in Sri Lanka. Many of these crimes have shown an increase by the year 2016. Further the magazines like the Spartacus and the Little John point out that Sri Lanka is paradise for child prostitution. All these factors reveal that child sexual abuse has become a serious social problem in the country and it is of importance to conduct an in-depth study on it.

The significance of this study is evident from number of aspects such as academic, practical and social problems. As a social issue, the problem of child abuse seemed to have assumed alarming proportion
 


during the last couple of decades in Sri Lanka. The statistics on crime and delinquency clearly show a gradual deterioration of security of children in the country and there has been dramatic increase in certain types of crimes against children. A civilized society does not accept the existing issues of child protection escalated into dangerous proportions. However, what is evident from the annual reports of crimes is the precipitous increase in the rate of crime against children compared to the 1960s and 1970s. The official records compiled by the police provide only the cases complained to the police and a few cases detected by the police itself. As the victims are not in a position to complain about the crime committed against them. It can be assumed that a considerable number of crimes against children remain as hidden crimes. Therefore, the seriousness of this social problem should be ascertained with reference to both official statistics as well as the dark figures of child sexual abuse and other crimes. Accordingly, this study has been specially designed with the objective of looking into the hidden aspect of crimes against children and their causal factors. Sri Lanka needs to assure the protection of all citizens and therefore the children of Sri Lanka deserve special protection from the state and society in case of the increasing rate of crime against them.

In addressing causal factors of child abuse in Sri Lanka, any study in the contemporary society has to pay special attention to the family. Family being the traditional and responsible primary institution of reproduction, child rearing and taking care of children requires due analysis of its functional effectiveness in the current society. This study reveals the real characteristics of existing system of family and the issues that it has confronted in the modern society in response to the change of traditional social system. In particular, the timely importance of this study lies in its endeavor to identify the direct and indirect family related causes of child abuse and other factors which have been conducive to the perpetration of crimes against children in a social environment where the family is not performing its expected roll of protecting the children and taking care of them. As Singalovada Sutta explains parents have responsibilities to protect and direct their children in the correct path. Parents should restrain their children from evil; they should
 


direct their children towards the good and train them for a suitable profession. In due time parents should arrange marriages for them and hand over the inheritance to them (Rahula, 1959: 122-123; Rahula 1965).
  1. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

To identify the main causes of child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka To explore the significance of the use of guidance given in the
Singalovada Sutta for parents to protect their children.

4.1. Methodology


This study explored the main causes of the child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka and identified the significance of the use of guidance given in the Singalovada Sutta specially for parents to protect their children. This study was conducted in the agricultural district of Anuradhapura in the 2015. For this study the data were collected by using random sample through the use of interviewer administered questionnaire and in-depth interviews with the twenty victims of child sexual abuse and their parents. Further, this study has utilized the case study method to collect data from several victims.
Age of the Victims

Table 2 indicates age categories of the victims. All the victims were five years and above. Compared to the other categories of age groups, 11-15 years group represented the highest number of victims that stands at 60% (n=12). The other 35% (n=7) belonged to the 6-10 year age category.
Table 2: Age Distribution of the Victims
Source: Field Study 2017
Age Group Frequency
05 01
6-10 07
11-15 12
Total 20
It was found that the many abusers were known to the victim. As the Table 3 shows 50% (n=10) of the sexual abuses have been
 


committed by the neighbours of the victims. Male friends of the victims have committed 30% (n=6) of sexual abuses.
Table 3: Nature of Perpetrators of Sexual Abuse
Source: Field Study 2017
Perpetrator Frequency
Neighbors 10
Male friend 06
Father 1
Step father 1
Visitor 1
Teacher 1
Total 20


It is important to note here that father and the step father of victims also have commited child sexual abuse. A school teacher had sexually abused her pupil at the school.

In this study the nature of the sexual abuse was scrutinized. The majority (45%; n=9) of abusers had touched the genital of the girls while 40% (n=8) had sexual intercourse with children. The rest 15% (n=3) had used childrens thighs as the sexual object.
Table 4: Venue of the Sexual Abuse
Source: Field Study 2017
Venue Frequency
Victims home 12
Abandoned house 03
Abusers house 03
School 01
Bus 01
Total 20
As Table 4 indicates, many Child sexual abusers 60% had chosen victims houses to carry out sexual abuse in the absence of their parents or guardians. In some families (20%; n=4), victims mother
 


had gone abroad to work as housemaids with the hope of finding money to alleviate their poverty stricken conditions. In those families the father had taken to alcohol and they did not fulfill the requirement of protecting them from being sexual victims. Some (15%) abusers had taken the children to the abandoned houses for victimizing them while other (15%) abusers had used their own houses to engage in sexual activities with children.

The majority (70%) of sexual abuse had been committed by force and violence. Some girls (10%) were not fully aware about the sexual activities as they were very young but Some male friends (20%) had cheated their girl friends to motivate to have sex with them.
Table 5: Abusers Relationship to the Victim Source: Field Study 2017
Abuser Frequency
Neighbour 08
Teacher 01
Student 01
Male friend 05
Father/Step father 02
Known person 01
Unknown Person 02
Total 20
Table 5 shows that most of the persons who committed child sexual abuse were living in the same community with the victims. Some of them such as father, teacher, neighbor, male friend had a close relationship with the victims in their day to day life.
 


Table 6: Causes for the Child Sexual Abuse Source: Field Study 2017
Cause Frequency
No one at Victims home 10
Negligence of parents 05
No objection by victims 05
Ignorance of victims 02
Mother was abroad 03
Uncivilized Nature of Abuser 02
Drunkenness 02
According to Table 6, many incidence of child sexual abuse had occurred at the time that the victims were alone at home. Abusers had chosen to get their sexual pray when victims were alone when their parents were at the paddy field or at any other work places away from their houses. Both parents were at work in their field or some other places with the hope of earning their daily bread. Therefore, they were not much concerned about their childrens security while they were at home. Some girls (10%; n=2) were not aware about the sexual activities as they were very young, so it would have paved the way for abusers to get their sexual desires fulfilled through those young girls. In some families (15%) childrens mother was in abroad serving as housemaids. The lack of mothers care for children had not been adequately substituted father or the rest of the members in the family.
Table 7: The Impact of Sexual Abuse on Victims
Source: Field Study 2017
Impact Frequency
Stop schooling 03
Transferred to another school 02
Become isolated 02
Social humiliation 05
No revelation of the sexual abuse 08
Being hateful to the society 02
As indicated in the Table 7, the impact of the child sexual abuse
 


caused the victims to change their normal behavior. Only a few families (40%) had succeeded in hiding the incidence from the public. Consequently, they did not receive any mal-responses from the public. As a result of social humiliation, 15% of victims had stopped their schooling while 10% had been transferred to another school to get rid of public humiliation. Some victims (10%) had been isolated by their school mates by rejecting their company after they became the victim of sexual abuse. Another two (10%) victims expressed their feeling of hatred for the society.

In the present study, the religion of the victims was solicited. Accordingly, out of 19 Buddhist victims, 15 (75%) of them had studied in Dhamma school while four (20%) victims did not attend the Dhamma school. One (5%) victim who observed Islam religion said that she visited the Dhamma school once a week.

Most of the members of the victim families (60%) had visited the temple for religious observances on full moon days. Of the victims families 20% (n=4) stated that they rarely visited temples while the rest 15% (n=3) stated they did not visit temples at all.

The people of the area clearly revealed the need for the reestablishment of family and community order in terms of Buddhist teachings and Buddhist cultural values. The families committed for better socialization of children and the Buddhist cultural values and the community leaders especially referred to the significance of Buddhist discourses like Singalovada Sutta and other Buddhist norms generally followed by the good families. This community reference to Singalovada Sutta was taken seriously into account in finding community-based resocialization of families responsible for the abusive acts against minors and even elderly people. Compared to the adverse social impacts of legal actions taken by the criminal justice systems, specially the police, prisons and correctional institutions, community-based corrections of abusive families or family members and victims of abusive acts seemed to be less harmful and such community-based approaches reduce the labeling impacts of formal institutional corrections of offenders. It is in the case of community-based approach to the corrections of offenders of child abuse that the particular teaching of the Singalovada Sutta can be implemented as required to the needs of modern society.
 


Most of the families are tired of formal reactions of the criminal justice systems and have given up their hopes in the correction of offenders as such formal reactions have tarnished their family image. They eagerly declared their willingness to get their offending family members rehabilitated in a religious environment associated with the local temples under the chief incumbents.

According to the people who expressed their willingness for community-based rehabilitation of offenders, their families can be reestablished in terms of the basic principles given in the singalovada Sutta. Here one important observation was the lack of proper transmission of Buddhist teachings and values to the family members who were specially the offenders and victims. They had been merely living under the control of parents or neighbours. In an environment where the control of elders had collapsed, they had been victimized. The Singalovada Sutta teachings seemed to be the most appropriate principles and guidelines to be addressed in the community-based informal, family friendly solution to the existing issues.

5. CONCLUSIONS

The findings of the research revealed that child abuses in the selected area was committed by the known people of the victims and their families. Only a very few child sexual abusers were found as unknown people of the victims. In most occasions, neighbours and the male friends of the victims abused the children at victims homes in the absence of their parents. Some times children were abused in the abandoned houses located in their villages. The isolated villages and their environment were conducive for sexual offenders to carry out their sexual abuses. Parents had failed to execute their role and responsibilities as explained in the Singalovada Sutta namely to restrain their children from evil such as sexual misconduct and provide protection to prevent such activities. Parents had not trained or made their children aware of the need to be involved in positive activities and protect them from evil. Absence of mother at home due to migration as house maids or fully engrossed in work outside home badly affected childrens protection and such children had often fallen prey to sexual abusers. This research study has revealed some important social requirements of people in order



to control and prevent criminal acts against women and children including child sexual abuses. The study revealed that the family members had not been adequately socialized to learn about their roles in terms of the cultural values and norms. In such a situation community-based rehabilitation programs can be enriched with the teachings of Singalovada Sutta together with the major social functions of parents, children, teachers and students, employers and employees, religious leaders and followers etc. This study concludes that if the parents had been able to follow the parental responsibilities as illustrated in the Singalovada Sutta the child sexual abuse would have been prevented to a great extent.



REFERENCES

Administration Reports of Inspector General of Police (2012- 2016) Sri Lanka

Anshen, R.N., (1959) The Family: Its Function and Destiny. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.

Ferguson, S.J. (1998) Shifting the Centre: Understanding Contemporary Families. California: Mayfield Publishing Company
Gittins, D., (1985) The Family in Question: Changing Households
& Familiar Ideologies. London: The Macmillan Press Ltd.

Narada Thera (1996) Sigalovada Sutta: The Discourse to Sigala, The Laypersons Code of Discipline[on line] available from http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn31.0.nara.html [30January2019]

Pogrebin L.C., (1983) Family Politics: Love and Power on an Intimate Frontier. London: McGraw-Hill Book Company

Rahula, Walpola Rev. (1996) What the Buddha Taught. Dehiwala: Buddhist Cultural Centre

Rahula, Walpola Rev. (1965) Budun Wadala Dharmaya [The Dhamma the Buddha Taught], Colombo: M.D. Gunasena & Co, Ltd.

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