12 NEED vs GREED:  RECKLESS COMMERCIAL  DEVELOPMENT: PAIN OF EXCESS AND THE BUDDHIST ANSWER

Thứ năm - 09/05/2019 13:07
by Shree RP Jain



 
NEED vs GREED
RECKLESCOMMERCIAL  DEVELOPMENT: PAIN OF EXCESS AND THE BUDDHIST ANSWER

by Shree RP Jain*






ABSTRACT

India is currently poised for explosive growth, which should not be surprising because in the 15th century India and China
were by far the richest nations on Earth with combined output far ahead of Europe. I shall, however, concentrate essentially on spiritual contribution made by the Indic Civilization representing a coherent articulation of our experiences in the inner world of the mind, where the Absolute meets the human. And it is our task as publishers to transmit this immense treasure of spiritual values to the world. We are like a bridge between our authors, ancient or modern, and our readers. And without a bridge, no one can cross to the wonderful shore” of Indian culture.
Reckless Commercial Development/Pain of Excess

Some people may worry that self-control and too much care about Nature, as advocated by Mahatma Gandhi, would hamper development and bring about poverty. We know too well, however, that the more we consume, the more expensive things become leading to the growth of the destitute class. Reckless commercial development also results in economic and social crisis bringing


*. Head and Director, Motilal Banarsidass Chairperson, MLBD Research and Resource Foundation, India.
 


further suffering to the poor. Ahimsa, or Non-harm, does not deny economic development as propounded by Bhagvan Mahavir or Mahatma Gandhi is the principle of Aparigraha; it only exercises self-control, limits our desires. Desires are endless. More and more desires give rise to materialism and extra-ordinary greed, far beyond basic human needs and sustainable consumption. Greed results in the destruction of the very roots of our life. If we want to prevent the world from becoming a barren desert and our societies from growing into monstrous systems of injustice and suffering, self-control and non-violence appear as the only reasonable answer-not only for Jains, but for people of any other creeds. For any spiritual being, the destruction of life be it in air, water or on the ground, is a sin. But even if you do not subscribe to this principle, you will agree that reckless destruction of life could eventually lead to mankinds own demise. Jainism is not the only Indian school advocating non-violence and self-control as central principles. Buddhism and Hinduism equally preach them. As the primacy of the individual and individual desire has continued to grow exponentially in the shadow of the industrializing world, two questions have arisen, says Timmerman: ‘How can we deny people their right to self-fulfillment? Yet how can we survive on a planet of 10 billion points of infinite greed. This is the point at which the more challenging aspects of Buddhism present a serious alternative basis for environmental thought and action.

The world is passing through an unprecedented crisis of human values in life; as a result of which we come across incidents of rape, murder, extortion, deceit, fanaticism, conflicts, injustice, war, violence and terror; and above all unbridled lifestyle embedded in consumerism is on the rise. Hatred and violence is percolating through global social fabric making our life insecure and vulnerable. Affluent family children across the globe have all modern amenities of life and live a luxurious life resulting in over-indulgence and pampering, finally leading to an utter break-down of emotional relationship between familiesno forbearance, no tolerance to each other. As a result of which we start leading an artificial or synthetic lifestyle aping the western way without understanding the direction towards which we are moving where only negative forces and crime has a vital role to play. Following the dictates of capitalism in the
 


last 50 years, Asian and Western democracies have seen economic miracles and unparalleled growth for millions of people. Personal wealth and freedom, health and cultural opportunities have increased for the majority of the people living in these societies. And yet there is something that is not quite right. We have paid a price for our success; the price being degradation of our ethical values and standards. This decline has been described as a moral and spiritual decadence. It is not simply the system of capitalism that is to be blamed, but is rather the result of an apparently endless cycle of birth, growth, decay and death. If we objectively observe the conditions around us, do we not see that our main challenge is to properly manage our lives in an environment of excess – a feat that has not been totally possible for some of the most successful and richest cultures of the modern world? Perhaps, this is why we are experiencing economic recession and financial meltdown globally. Success in business and social status should not be discouraged; on the contrary, it should be applauded and rewarded reasonably. We do, however, need to look at whose expense the wealth is accumulated and whether any attempt is made to more fairly distribute the wealth beyond the circle of me and Mine. In looking at the period of decadence more closely, it is marked by defectiveness, pessimism, materialism and frivolity. These stages of growth and decay begin with people being constrained in a position where they have lost their freedom; there is tension, misery, fear and doubts. People are in a state of bondage - an apparently inevitable cycle: from Bondage comes Faith, from Faith comes Energy, from Energy comes Strength, from Strength comes Affluence, from Affluence comes Selfishness, from Selfishness comes Complacency, from Complacency comes Apathy and from Apathy comes Bondage.

It is important to note that individuals do, at least, have the power of free choice and can choose not to follow the trends of declining moral values. It requires faith in that which is True and Good which is our true nature. So it will require waking up, remembering what we know in our heart to be true.

When Barrister Bapu returned from London after completing his examination, he landed at Bombay where he came in touch with a great saint Raychandbhai also known as Srimad Rajchandra.
 


Gandhi was deeply moved and inspired by his living conduct. Srimad, who became Gandhis ethical and spiritual anchor, was a Jeweller by trade. In his entire business career he never resorted to untruth. He earned the complete confidence of his customers in India and abroad, particularly Arab countries. Leave aside modern times, even in those days it was virtually impossible for businessmen, particularly in Jewellery trade, to adhere to truth, but Srimad practiced it thoroughly and proved the contrary. Gandhi in his autobiography says, There was no business or other selfish tie that bound him to me, and yet I enjoyed the closest association with him….. I have since met many a religious leaders and teachers and I must say that no one else has ever made on me the impression that Srimad did. His words went straight home to me…. In my moments of spiritual crisis, therefore, he was my refuge.No wonder Gandhi followed Srimad in practice of Non-Violence and Truth during his life-time, be it personal or political. Srimad never wrote anything which did not come from within or of which he had no personal experience (Anubhuti).

Truth and transparency are the hallmark of Gandhian philosophy. This holds good eminently for the business world too. For a management to be effective and enduring, it has to be an open book, subjecting itself to public scrutiny. Ethics and honesty, by which Gandhiji set store, are among the critical elements of a successful business policy. Alan Axelrod, in his book, Gandhi, CEO” draws a parallel between Gandhijis qualities and the attributes of a CEO. There is no doubt that Gandhi was a good human and an intensely spiritual man, but he was also a supremely practical leader for change [management].” The fact that Mahatma hailed from a community of merchants perhaps explains the instinctive qualities of a typical business manager he had in him and which provides a brilliant analysis of his personality insofar as it reflected the image of a corporate czar. Gandhi advocated and adopted his leadership principles in his political life and relates them to the corporate context. The principle of management and leadership was practiced by the Mahatma during his long and legendary saga of struggle and sacrifice in South Africa as well as in India.
***
 


We are living in the age of technology – where everything is possible. This is the time of instant information, instant actualization of potential, of instant gratification only. For everyone surely? In the developed world mostly everyone, but in countries like India only for the middle class and above. For those not covered under the technology plan life looks bleak as ever. Unless everyone has an equal right to progress, we are a civilization at war.

Instead of bothering you with a dry talk on civilization and culture, allow me to say that cultures are like wines: the older they get, the richer their aroma and taste. Indic culture, undoubtedly, belongs to the category of such old and aromatic cultures. There may have been periods of stagnation and crisis, but nothing could stop the tremendously powerful stream of the Indic civilization to continue its course and keep up its immensely creative contribution to world heritage.

India is currently poised for explosive growth, which should not be surprising because in the 15th century India and China
were by far the richest nations on Earth with combined output far ahead of Europe. I shall, however, concentrate essentially on spiritual contribution made by the Indic Civilization representing a coherent articulation of our experiences in the inner world of the mind, where the Absolute meets the human. And it is our task as publishers to transmit this immense treasure of spiritual values to the world. We are like a bridge between our authors, ancient or modern, and our readers. And without a bridge, no one can cross to the wonderful shore” of Indian culture.

Some people may worry that self-control and too much care about Nature, as advocated by both Gautam Buddha and Mahatma Gandhi, would hamper development and bring about poverty. We know too well, however, that the more we consume, the more expensive things become leading to the growth of the destitute class. Reckless commercial development also results in economic and social crisis bringing further suffering to the poor. Ahimsa, or Non- harm, does not deny economic development similarly the Indic value of Apraigraha or non grasping only teaches us to exercise self- control and limit our desires. Desires are endless. As the Buddha clearly tells us, there is suffering and there is suffering only because
 


there is desire. More and more desires give rise to materialism and extra-ordinary greed, far beyond basic human needs and sustainable consumption. Greed results in the destruction of the very roots of our life. If we want to prevent the world from becoming a barren desert and our societies from growing into monstrous systems of injustice and suffering, self-control and non-violence appear as the only reasonable answer-not only for Buddhists and Jains, but for people of any other creeds. For any spiritual being, the destruction of life be it in air, water or on the ground, is a sin. But even if you do not subscribe to this principle, you will agree that reckless destruction of life could eventually lead to mankinds own demise. Buddhism and Jainism are not the only Indian school advocating non-violence and self-control as central principles. Yet how can we survive on a planet of 10 billion points of infinite greed. This is the point at which the more challenging aspects of Buddhism present a considerable alternative path for environmental thought and action.

The world is passing through an unprecedented crisis of human values in life; as a result of which we come across incidents of rape, murder, extortion, deceit, fanaticism, conflicts, injustice, war, violence and terror; and above all unbridled lifestyle embedded in consumerism is on the rise. Hatred and violence are percolating through global social fabric making our life insecure and vulnerable. Affluent family children across the globe have all modern amenities of life and live a luxurious life resulting in over-indulgence and pampering, finally leading to an utter break-down of emotional relationship between families – no forbearance, no tolerance to each other. As a result of which we start leading an artificial or synthetic lifestyle aping the western way without understanding the direction towards which we are moving where only negative forces and crime has a vital role to play. Following the dictates of capitalism in the last 50 years, Asian and Western democracies have seen economic miracles and unparalleled growth for millions of people. Personal wealth and freedom, health and cultural opportunities have increased for the majority of the people living in these societies. And yet there is something that is not quite right. We have paid a price for our success; the price being degradation of our ethical values and standards. This decline has been described as a moral and spiritual decadence. It is not simply the system of capitalism
 


that is to be blamed, but is rather the result of an apparently endless cycle of birth, growth, decay and death. If we objectively observe the conditions around us, do we not see that our main challenge is to properly manage our lives in an environment of excess – a feat that has not been totally possible for some of the most successful and richest cultures of the modern world? Perhaps, this is why we are experiencing economic recession and financial meltdown globally. Success in business and social status should not be discouraged; on the contrary, it should be applauded and rewarded reasonably. We do, however, need to look at whose expense the wealth is accumulated and whether any attempt is made to more fairly distribute the wealth beyond the circle of me and Mine.

An example of this greed and excess is found in the business community in the west. In the US the CEOs of companies are paid 150-300 times the average compensation paid to all the other employees. In a recent report in the UK the CEOs of the top 100 companies were paid an average of £4.5 million per year, 175 times the average salary. The other interesting statistic is that these UK CEOs only stay in their position for 3-4 years. Their focus is on short-term financial gains, mainly for themselves.

In looking at the period of decadence more closely, it is marked by defectiveness, pessimism, materialism and frivolity. These stages of growth and decay begin with people being constrained in a position where they have lost their freedom; there is tension, misery, fear and doubts. People are in a state of bondage - an apparently inevitable cycle: from Bondage comes Faith, from Faith comes Energy, from Energy comes Strength, from Strength comes Affluence, from Affluence comes Selfishness, from Selfishness comes Complacency, from Complacency comes Apathy and from Apathy comes Bondage.

It is important to note that individuals do, at least, have the power of free choice and can choose not to follow the trends of declining moral values. It requires faith in that which is True and Good which is our true nature. So it will require waking up, remembering what we know in our heart to be true.

When Barrister Bapu returned from London after completing his examination, he landed at Bombay where he came in touch
 


with a great saint Raychandbhai also known as Srimad Rajchandra. Gandhi was deeply moved and inspired by his living conduct. Srimad, who became Gandhis ethical and spiritual anchor, was a Jeweller by trade. In his entire business career he never resorted to untruth. He earned the complete confidence of his customers in India and abroad, particularly Arab countries. Leave aside modern times, even in those days it was virtually impossible for businessmen, particularly in Jewellery trade, to adhere to truth, but Srimad practiced it thoroughly and proved the contrary. No wonder Gandhi followed Srimad in practice of Non-Violence and Truth during his life-time, be it personal or political. Srimad never wrote anything which did not come from within or of which he had no personal experience (Anubhuti).

Truth and transparency are the hallmark of Gandhian philosophy. This holds good eminently for the business world too. For a management to be effective and enduring, it has to be an open book, subjecting itself to public scrutiny. Ethics and honesty, by which Gandhiji set store, are among the critical elements of a successful business policy. The fact that Mahatma hailed from a community of merchants perhaps explains the instinctive qualities of a typical business manager he had in him and which provides a brilliant analysis of his personality insofar as it reflected the image of a corporate czar. Gandhi advocated and adopted his leadership principles in his political life and relates them to the corporate context. The principle of management and leadership was practiced by the Mahatma during his long and legendary saga of struggle and sacrifice in South Africa as well as in India.

The problems we are grappling with in todays times are not new. It said the Buddhas family filled his early childhood and youth with sensory pleasures and unthinkable indulgences. Then the Buddha, then the Prince Siddhartha saw three sights which drove him to renounce the world of consummate consumption. What reality the Buddha awoke to Oldenberg (2017) summarizes, “Buddha spends the first seven days, wrapt in meditation, under the sacred tree itself. During the night following the seventh day, he causes his mind to pass through the concatenation of causes and effects, from which the pain of existence arises: From ignorance comes
 


conformations, from conformations comes consciousnessand so on through a long series of intervening links. But if the first cause be removed, on which hangs this chain of effects hangs, ignorance becomes extinct and everything which arises from it collapse and all suffering is overcome(Page 114-115).

The Indic tradition is full of stories of how giving is getting. The universe rewards you for being charitable. The more you open your heart to people around you the more the universe responds to you. Charity affects you in the most obvious ways – it opens up your soul and warms you to the existence of others. But what the scriptures teach us is that when we care for the world, the world cares for us. One of the most important values the Buddha felt all living beings must cultivate is loving kindness or meta.

There is this old story that says that the Buddha first taught metta or loving kindness to a group of 500 monks in a solitary forest in India. The monks would sit in groups and begin meditating at 5 in the morning. This was the same time that the forest came to life. The forest beings when they saw the grand spectacle of monks seated in Padmasana before their eyes, felt frightened and threatened. They complained to the forest gods, who decided to threaten and attack the monks.

The monks were soon distracted by frightening sounds that came from everywhere in the forest. They went to the Buddha. The Buddha said, Be at peace.”

He meditated on what was ailing the monks. And he realized that while the monks had commenced their meditation they had  not  yet learnt to send loving kindness vibrations to the beings in the forest. These beings were thus frightened and threatened. He instructed the monks to persist in their practice and focus only on loving kindness. The monks though scared of the forest spirits held the Buddha is great reverence and decided to follow his advice.

In time the monks became accomplished in sending loving kindness vibrations to the universe at large and soon they calmed the forest spirts who grew friendly and helpful. Thus, what you give to the universe, the universe returns to you.

Wonhyo (617-686 AD), a prominent figure in Korean Buddhism writes in his commentary on the Awakening of Faith that the mind
 


has two aspects – one with absolute thusness and the other with mundane production-extinction. Thus he concluded that the mind was both deluded and awakened. What we need to do is to suppress our deluded minds and open up to the awakening in our minds. Awakening consists of nothing but relinquishing ones delusions and accepting ones original awakened state.

Many of the eastern dharmic traditions are founded on the belief that the prospect of enlightenment is something innately possible for all human beings. The question really is how can enlightenment move from the sphere of fiction to becoming a manifest reality. Enlightenment is something that needs to become us, the real us and show through in all our activities. It needs to become a felt force in our daily lives.

In Buddhism, is the concept of Tathagathagarba – the womb or the embryo of Buddhahood. Since it is believed that the Tathagathagarba is present in all beings, it is presupposed that even ordinary human beings can achieve enlightenment. It is believed to be a friendly, active agent that propels the regular human towards enlightenment. It is thus an active positive force.

Being the conqueror also means helping others overcome the problem of transmigration. According to the Buddhist Vajrasamadhi Sutra, the original enlightenment of each and every sentient being is constantly enlightening all sentient beings.

Observing phenomena without letting them interfere leads to an enlightened awareness as this story illustrates:

There lived once an old farmer who needed his horse very dearly to complete all that tedious work in the farms. Still one day when the horse ran away he did not respond. The other villagers however were perturbed. The rushed up to the farmers place and told him, We heard the news, terrible is it not.”

The farmer remained undisturbed, he merely nodded his head and said, Perhaps,”

Now, the farmer had a son. He heard what the villagers were saying. He told his father, Hold on, I will find the horse.”
He sat on his own horse and rode in the way his fathers horse was
 


seen running. He saw something behind the bushes and in his excitement he fell from the horse and broke his leg.

When the villagers heard this news they once again rushed to the farmers house and said, “Terrible, terrible, what great misfortune.”

The farmer, rather enigmatically and it must be said rather unpopularly only said Perhaps,”

In the meantime, the King of the Land announced that all the able young men will have to enlist for the army. When the army men came to the farmers village they took away all the young men except the farmers son.

Soon, the old villagers gathered around the farmer and with some admiration and regret said, You are lucky, your son is still with you.”
All the farmer said again was, Perhaps,”

Zen Buddhism teaches us that the ultimate reality is beyond the mind and can only be perceived through direct experience and engagement.

Consider these Zen stories which cannot be logically explained but can only be meditated upon:

Zen story 1


Yamaoka Tesshu, a student of Zen would keep visiting Zen masters and insult them for their foolishness. In this manner, he came upon the Dokuon of Shokoku.

Eager to show off his intelligence he said, “The Buddha, the mind, the sentient beings do not exist. Emptiness is the true nature f all. Nothing exists. Thus there is nothing to be given or received.

Dokuon of Shokoku listened to all this and continued to spoke. Suddenly, using his bamboo pipe he hit Yamaoka. The boy became angry at this.

Where did this anger originate from, if nothing exists?” the Dokuon of Shokoku queried.

Zen story 2


There was once a Zen student who was very unhappy with his temper, as he felt anger interfered with his practice. He went upto the Zen master Bankei and asked for a remedy.
 


Show me your temper,” asked Bankei.
I cant now,” the student responded,it comes out suddenly.”

“If you cannot show it to me, if you cannot be in anger anytime you wish it cannot be your true nature. You have nothing to worry.”

Zen Story 3

Once two monks got into argument about a flag. “The flag is moving,” said the first monk.
“The wind is moving,” said the second monk.

The sixth patriarch was passing by, Nothing doing, the mind is moving,” he said.

Zen story 4


Once  a  monk  asked  Fuketsu,  How  can  the  truth  be  expressed without speech and without silence?”
Fuketsu said, As it is expressed by birds in springtime in China.”

Zen story 5


Once Tozen was weighing some flax. A monk approached him, What is the Buddha?”
Tozan responded, “The flax weighs three pounds.”

Zen Story 6

A monk joined Joshus monastery, “Teach me,” he told the master. Have you eaten your rice?” Joshu asked.
I have,” said the monk.
“Then wash your bowl,” said Joshu. Instantly the monk was enlightened. Zen Story 7
Joshu asked Nansen,” What is the way?” Nansen said, Everyday life is the way?” Joshu asked,” Can it be studied?”
Nansen said, When you try to study it, it will leave you.”
 


Joshu, “If one does not study how will one know if one is on the way?” Nansen said, “The way belongs neither to the realm of perception,
nor to the region of non perception. Be as free as the sky and you will be.”
Joshu attained enlightenment on hearing this.

Zen Buddhism can guide us in thinking and going beyond mundane experiences. The primary cause for rise in materialism and consumerism tends to be our own preoccupation with mundane and repetitive experiences. Once we transcend our desire for the familiar we can effortlessly reduce our own wants and needs.

Suzuki (2017) explains this end of Zen Buddhism, The essence of Zen Buddhism consists in acquiring a new viewpoint of life and things generally. By this I mean that if we want to get into the inmost life of Zen, we must forget all our ordinary habits of thinking which control our everyday life, we must try to see if there is any other way of judging things, or rather if our ordinary way is always sufficient to give us the ultimate satisfaction of our spiritual needs.This acquiring of a new point of view in our dealings with life and the world is popularly called by Japanese Zen students satori. It is really another name for enlightenment..(Page 229)

An ancient Kashmiri scripture called Vijnana Bhairava suggests various meditation techniques to attain the void. One such technique goes - mentally understand that any alphabet before and after its utterance is nothing but the void. This contemplation will result in the merging with the void.

Gyatso (2007) translates the core of the Heart Sutra as, Shariputra, like this all phenomena are merely empty, having no characteristics. They are not produced and do not ceaseThey have no increase and no decreasepage 79.

Buddhism acknowledges that everything is essentially composed of the void; of emptiness or sunyata. There is interdependent arising of events, but these too are empty of any reality. Things happen, events pass. The great awakening happens when we are able to separate ourselves of our needs, our desires of everything that we want.

Our endless desires are endlessly empty. Thus, suffering that arises out of these desires is essentially bereft of any essential quality.
 


This suffering may be discarded and nirvana may be attained. This is the only way out in todays turbulent times.

To understand emptiness is to understand mindfulness. Mindfulness is the act of maintaining complete present tense awareness without any thoughts of the past or the future. When events and situations are considered to be empty of all presuppositions we live through them mindfully and with complete awareness.

When we live mindfully, we learn to watch our own thoughts feelings and emotions. When we watch the contents of the mind as they arise and set we learn not to judge them. We learn to remain non critical of ourselves. Only when we judge ourselves harshly does sorrow arise. Events happen, life passes. All phenomena is essentially empty. This is what the Heart Sutra teaches us.

When we live established in the void and free of all presuppositions we live mindfully. When we are mindful our needs decrease. We consume less of all the numerous sensory pleasures that the world has to offer us. We become less addicted to technology gadgets and spend more time trying to understand our own being and consciousness.

Another important Buddhist concept that partners with emptiness is the impermanence of all things. As Stcherbatsky (2018) speaks of this conceptualization, The elements of existence are momentary appearances, momentary flashings into the phenomenal world out of an unknown source. Just as they are disconnected, so to say, in breadth, not being linked together by any pervading substance, just so they are disconnected in depth or in duration, since they last only one single moment. They disappear as soon as they appear, in order to be followed by another momentary existence.(Page 37) Since all events and phenomena are essentially due to their innate nature impermanent it is useless to grasp after material commodities. Acquisition of these commodities cannot and will not help us.

One of the prime causes of excessive consumption is also the deep dissatisfaction we feel within ourselves. Buddhism teaches us contentment an important lesson for these turbulent. Only when
 


we feel we are not complete we try to acquire more and more objects and possessions. But when we learn to rest in the void, learn to perceive completely and learn to be mindful. We humans as a race don’t need so much.

Discernment is another important value that Buddhism teaches us. We must learn to discern between what we need and don’t need. Sustainable development and sustainable happiness is only possible when we discern between the real and the unreal, between the essential and the non-essential. As the famous Buddhist scripture the Lankavatara Sutra, a dialogue between the King of the Rakshasas, Ravana and The Buddha, as translated by Suzuki says, There is neither the seer nor the seen, neither the speaker nor the spoken; the form and usage of the Buddha and his dharma -they are nothing but discrimination.(Page 9)We need to be skillful in the way we perceive reality. We need to act in ways that cause less harm to the environment and to the world ecology. What the new world order needs is more discerning and more contented citizens.

When we cultivate discernment, we also cultivate wisdom. Gyatoso in the Boddhisattva Vow (2002), defines wisdom as “ a virtuous mind that functions mainly to dispel doubt and confusion by understanding its object thoroughly. Wisdom practiced with bodhicitta motivation is a perfection of wisdom,(Page 103).

To attain wisdom we need to let go and let our minds attain the natural state. Namgyal (2008) speaks of this Without having to focus the mind on an external state, rhythm of breath and so on, the meditator should concentrate on the mind and try to attain an absorption in its natural state. In this way the mind should be settled in its natural relaxed state. The Guhyasamaja comments on this:
In elevating the mind to a non discriminating state One should not indulge in thought.
The doha states:
By completely abandoning thought and the object of thought One should let the mind settle in the natural state of an infant.
(page 159)
 


The answers to these big questions like how do we change the world” can only come from changing the self or the non self (as the Buddha would say). Only when we transform ourselves can we transform the world around us. Buddhism provides us with the skillful means to bring about this transformation both within and without.









***
 


 

References

Gyatoso, Geshe Keslsang (2007) Heart of Wisdom. New Delhi.
Motilal Banarsidass.

Gyatoso, Geshe Keslsang (2002) The Bodhisattva vow – Essential Practices of Mahayana Buddhism. New Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass.

Gyatoso, Geshe Keslsang (2007) Understanding the mind. New Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass.

Namgyal, Dakpo Tashi (2008) Mahamudra, the Moonlight – Quintessence of Mind and Meditation. New Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass.

Oldenberg, Hermann (2017) Buddha – His life, His doctrine, His order. New Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass.

Stcherbatsky, Th. (2018) The central conception of Buddhism. New Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass.

Suzuki, D.T.(2017) Essays in Zen Buddhism – First Series. New Delhi. Motilal Banarsidass.
Suzuki, Daisetz Teitaro (2009) The Lankavatara Sutra. New Delhi.
Motilal Banarsidass.

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