11 IMPORTANCE OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY WITH BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVES, IN THE WAY TO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

Thứ năm - 09/05/2019 13:10
by Hansika Dilhani Hapugasthenna




 
IMPORTANCE OF COUNSELING PSYCHOLOGY WITH BUDDHIST PERSPECTIVES, IN THE WATO SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

by Hansika Dilhani Hapugasthenna*






ABSTRACT

To gain the exact sustainable development that we expect, first, we should overcome the obstacles that the families experiencing in their day to day lives, seems the family is the basic unit of the society. Those family issues mentally affect individuals’ health and Dangerous Drug Addiction is one of them. The objective of this research directly connected with, the importance of the Sustainable Development, Importance of the Family, Awareness of Dangerous Drugs’ Addiction, Reduce affection of Dangerous Drug Addiction to gain the Sustainable Development, Drug Prevention, and Counseling with Buddhist Perspectives etc. Data collected from; National Dangerous Drugs Control Board (Sri Lanka), Youth Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre (Kandy), Prevention Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre, (Unawatuna), Kandakadu, Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre (Polonnaruwa), Meth Sewana Elders (Adults) Home (Balagolla), Childrens with Disabilities Home (Galmaduwa), Open Prison, and Bogambara Prison Pallekale.
The outcome of the Methodology/ Results of the research 
shows that the reason for all aspects is; Family, Poverty, Drugs, Addictions, Abuses, Education and Knowledge etc. Today world is entangled in a complicated dilemma. Stress, unhappiness, crimes, terrorism, hunger, malnutrition and dangerous diseases such as AIDS are common. Human is engaged in a power struggle so as not to recognize anyone else and are busy in fulfilling ones needs. As the responsible citizen of the world, it is our duty to help the victims and the ones who are about to undergo these situations in future, to overcome from their bad behaviors and make the whole society aware of the serious drawbacks of consuming the deadly Drugs which make obstacles to the process of Sustainable Development. Therefore, for Sustainable Development, we should more consider those factors and should try to help those people to overcome from the obstacles. Otherwise, Sustainable Development is will be a daydream for the world.
  1. INTRODUCTION

The family is the most important unit of society. In the same way that is the basement of the world, that is the place where produce the next generation and the owners of the society. Those owners are the one who builds the society or the world as well as itsfuture. They are the future of the world that we are living in. But the main problem is, all influencing roots for the Sustainable Development linked with this basement. By considering all of these, the family is the exact place where all the problems which are starting from. That is the exact place where we can reduce the problems and develop sustainability. To gain the exact sustainable development that we expect, first, we should overcome the obstacles that the families experiencing in their day to day lives, seems the family is the most important subject to the society.

Parents are the role model of their children. Children are more likely to imitate their parents. Even their parents make some boundaries for the wellbeing of their own children, they do not keep that and walk beyond by breaking those boundaries because of their curiosity. Children always try to escape from those boundaries which made for their own wellbeing and they seek for their freedom. That is the nature of a child. But, this might will lead them to troubles. Those troubles/ family issues mainly affect
 


society. Among all of those troubles, Dangerous Drug Addiction is one of them.
  1. RESEARCH  PROBLEM

Most of the people confuse when they talking about using Drugs (Substances). Simply, drugs or substances intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, modification, treatment, or prevention of disease, can be defined as Drugs or Substances, but something and often illegal drugs or substances that cause addictions, abuses.

Long-lasting drug abuse problems are often perceived to be less devastating than drug addiction but the fact is that ongoing use of illicit substances can be just as damaging to the users life.

Drug abuse is signified by experiencing one or more the following issues in the past year:
    1. Legal problems caused by drug abuse or behaviors under the influence.
 
    1. Physical harm to others caused by the individuals use of drugs and/or his behaviors under the influence (or lack of action caused by the use of drugs).
 
    1. Inability to do what is necessary at home, at school, at work or to manage responsibilities in
 
    1. Ongoing use of drugs despite continued problems in these and other areas caused by drug abuse.

If someone experiences three or more of the following issues within a 12-month period, that person meets the criteria for a diagnosis of addiction:
  1. The onset of withdrawal symptoms (physical and psychological) when without the drug of choice.
 
  1. Using larger and larger amounts of the drug of choice in order to achieve the same results experienced initially.
 
  1. Less interest in old hobbies and interests or career/school pursuits.
  2. Withdrawing from friends and family.
 
 
  1. Patterns of behavior that revolve solely around getting or staying high.
  2. Multiple attempts to cut down or stop drug use  without success.
 
  1. Continued use of drugs and alcohol despite continued and growing problems related to their use.

Addiction doesn’t start overnight. It takes time to build up a tolerance to the drug of choice, to develop cravings for the drug, and to experience problems due to the use of illicit substances. Drug abuse often starts first. Though at its worst it can look like addiction, there is one key characteristic that makes drug dependence different.

The first sign is the inability to stop using drugs and alcohol. Someone who struggles with drug abuse may experience a number of problems that plague those with addiction but he may be able to stop using all drugs of abuse without a problem for long periods of time. An addict is unable to stay away from his drug of choice and/ or other substances despite a keen desire to quit using.

Ongoing abuse of drugs or alcohol can lead to addiction. Regular use creates a tolerance that in turn can mean the experience of withdrawal symptoms when without the drug. Similarly, ongoing use of drugs, especially for a specific purpose such as to relax, deal with anger, or manage other emotions or problematic mental health symptoms, can create the belief that use of the drug is necessary to function, thus creating a psychological dependence1.

Its useful to think of the problem of drug abuse from a global perspective. As international travel becomes more accessible and affordable, citizens from various countries have greater access to illicit substances from all corners of the globe. Drug abuse has increased worldwide, notes the World Drug Report 2013, which was issued by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. The UNODC report states that 167 million to 315 million people between the ages of 15 and 64 have used illicit substances during the past year (2011, the latest year for which figures were available), or about 3.6 to 6.9 percent of the global population. This number had increased by 18 percent from the year before.
  1. Dual Diagnosis Organization, n.d.
 


Use of illicit substances is an enormous public health problem worldwide, as people become ill, injured or die using drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamines, as well as medicines prescribed by a physician. The UNODC estimates that between 102,000 and 247,000 people died from drug-related causes in 2011, which a mortality rate is ranging from 22.3 to 54.0 deaths per million people. In essence, these figures show that deaths attributed to drug abuse account for 0.54 percent to 1.3 percent of all deaths worldwide.

Awareness of the facts about substance abuse from around the world can help drive home just how important it is for the society with addictions to make the decision to recover. When relatives and friends take the time to learn about the problems of alcohol and drug abuse, they will get a better sense of the urgency of the situation. Drug abuse affects people from all walks of life, young and old, poor and rich. Wherever people have an inclination to abuse substances, a market will emerge to sell them these dangerous products2.

According to the Hand Book of Drug Abuse Information in Sri Lanka 2016, which was published by the National Dangerous Drugs Control Board (NDDCB) Ministry of Law and Order & Southern Development, mentioned that the total number of drug- related arrests was 82, 482 in 2015. Compared with 2014, drug- related arrests have increased by 23% in 2015. Of the total drug- related arrests, 32% was for heroin and 63% was for cannabis. Most numbers of drug-related arrests have been reported from the Western province (60%), followed by the Southern province (10%) and Central province (08%). Colombo district contributed to 43% of the total drug arrested followed by 14% in Gampaha district and 4% in Kurunegala district. The prevalence of drug-related arrests was 397 per 100,000 population in 20153.

The number of people addicted to drugs across the world has risen since in near few years. In our country (Sri Lanka), we are experiencing with drugs of abuse and with the drug abuse problem is unique in many ways. Drugs were invented by foreigners and now

 
  1. Serenity Recovery Now, 17.02.2016.
  2. The Hand Book of Drug Abuse Information in Sri Lanka 2016 : 76.
 


our citizens are adapted to that and they are using drugs with or without knowing themselves illegal drugs are harmful to both their physical and mental health. Most of the drug adductors are mainly addicted to drugs like Heroin, Marijuana, opium etc. I strained to clasp any point which can help to overcome this worldwide burning problem and which stands as a huge wall between the future of the world and sustainable development. Many teenagers face some form of addiction at some point in their lives. Although addiction to drugs is most commonly reported alcohol and nicotine in particular, there are a number of other substances like heroin, opium, marijuana, tablets like apple, pre-cap, dancing pills etc. Most of the clients that I found were used substances like heroin, marijuana and different types of tablets.

Addiction is a clinical condition. It is different to overuse of a substance. It has a clear craving component, is compulsive with increased tolerance to what the original effect was, it affects the individual in a negative way and the person feels out of control of the behavior and is unable to stop it even with effort. Withdrawal symptoms occur if the behavior is discontinued for even a short period of time. There are various factors contributing to addiction including genetics, brain chemistry, life experiences, individual characteristics, social setting, and upbringing. Addiction responds well to a consistent and targeted treatment approach and needs monitoring for replacing4.
Typical symptoms of drug addiction;

Physical:

    1. Bloodshot eyes or changed pupil size.
    2. Changes in eating and sleep patterns.
    3. Sudden weight loss or weight gain.
    4. Deterioration in physical appearance, personal grooming.

Behavioral:

  1. Changes in attendance and performance at school.
 
  1. Step4.org.uk, n.d.
 
 
  1. Unexplained money problems or requirements.
  2. Change in friends, favorite places to be.
  3. Erratic and often illogical behavior, agitation or lethargy.

Psychological:

  1. Sudden and erratic mood swings.
  2. Spaced out and often lack motivation.
  3. Fearful, anxious, paranoid with no reason.
  4. May hear voices.

Its’ crystal clear that this addiction is not good for an individuals health, that condition influences his/her family, to the society and to the sustainable development as well. We can eradicate this burning problem and by using Buddhist perspectives and we can achieve the goals that we are targeting. Buddhist pre-marriage counseling is one of the tools for happy married life and that leads to peace within the family. The family is the basic socialization unit according to social psychology. Therefore, to have a happy married life, everyone needs the counseling before their marriage. Pre Marriage counseling focuses on communication skills, emotional management, sexual information, and future plans etc. That will leads to having a peaceful family life and once the families are happy there will be sustainable peace within the country. Buddhist pre-marriage counseling can be used as techniques for sustainable peace and its’ development.
  1. RESEARCH  OBJECTIVES

The objective of this research directly connected with, the importance of the Sustainable Development,  Importance  of the Family, Awareness of Dangerous Drugs’ Addiction, Reduce affection of Dangerous Drug Addiction to gain the Sustainable Development, Drug Prevention, and Counseling with Buddhist Perspectives etc.
    1. To identify methods: According to the Buddhist teachings, we are rich with so many methods that can apply for this kind of problems. In here it means, to show the usefulness of those
 


methods, to show how practical is that and to introduce missing and most important methods to the world too.
    1. Analyze the methods: When considering worldwide problem regarding drug addiction, some countries use several types of methods to prevent those drug adductors. In my research, I have analyzed the methods both that other countries use as well as our country uses too.
 
    1. New methods: By considering Buddhist teachings and its methods that we use in the present context, I hope to get ideas form both and improve those methods to produce and introduce best methods to prevent those drug adductors.
 
  1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Data collected from; National Dangerous Drugs Control Board (Sri Lanka), Youth Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre (Kandy), Prevention Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre, (Unawatuna), Kandakadu, Treatment and Rehabilitation Centre (Polonnaruwa), Meth Sewana EldersHome (Balagolla), Childrens with Disabilities Home (Galmaduwa), Open Prison, and Bogambara Prison Pallekale.

Ive gathered information through a questionnaire, interviews, data from government agencies, applications of Buddhist suttas, Buddhist teachings, Buddhist counseling methods, and those information were facilitated to achieve the targeted purpose. Therefore, we can use different types of strategies in Buddhism like the Buddhist positive thinking methods, stress and anger management methods, peaceful mind and mindful methods like loving kindness meditation etc. Especially we can use teachings of Buddhist suttas and pre-marriage counseling methods which shows to have a happy married life, because the goal is to make a peaceful well-being of individuals, through pre-marriage counseling. This kind of methods will be useful to achieve the purpose.
  1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The outcome of the Methodology/ Results of the research shows that the reason for all aspects is; Family including poverty, drugs, addictions, abuses, lack of education, knowledge etc. Buddhist suttas, Buddhist teachings, and Buddhist counseling methods can
 


be effectively use as techniques in the present globalizing world. The results will not show hundred percent as we aspect from the beginning, but if we work harder until we achieve the targeted goal, it will end from the destination we aspect. To gain confidence in this procedure, there is a huge duty for everyone, that duty not only for the people that who wish to have sustainable development. That duty stands for all of us and that is our responsibility as well. As the first step by starting with pre-marriage guidance before the marriages are ideal. After giving that result defiantly will be good and will lead to having the sustainable development that we expect.

Ancient people lived a happy life with a good understanding of their rights, duties, and responsibilities for each other. They did not have unlimited goals to reach. They were satisfied with what they have. But now people with unlimited goals are make them to not satisfy with what they have. That leads to having problems. Because of those problems, they were frustrated and they try to find short term solutions or rather escape from by taking alcohol, cigarettes etc. Further, if they cannot survive most probably the next step will end up with addiction to both illegal and dangerous drugs or by committing suicide.

While I doing this research, I was informed that the beginners who tempt to use drugs for a social reason or merely on account of curiosity find that it relieves him of anxiety and tension for the time being and a result learns to use drugs as a relief measure. Drugs are likely to be ruined in terms of physical or mental health, sensational and social relationship and moral aims. The number of addictions and deaths of due to dangerous drugs is supposed to out the number of deaths due to the armed conflict in Sri Lanka. When considering young people in the present society and their interaction, drugs were badly affected its functioning. The relationship among the family members has been lost due to drug addiction. Most of the times, frequent quarrels lead to conflicts. Then, that matter leads to anxiety and stress.
  1. CONCLUSION

How can we achieve the exact Sustainable Development with above? It is clear that the world is moving forward fastly with
 


globalization and so people are. Most people live their lives merely and they spend their lives not knowing the faith in their lives. One part of society try to change these lifestyles and it is clear that is impossible for them to do it alone. Youth is the strength that we can use to change this pattern.

The world is entangled in a complicated dilemma. Stress, unhappiness, crimes, terrorism, hunger, malnutrition and dangerous diseases such as AIDS are common. Everyone engaged with the power struggle and them unable to recognize the harm that happens to the world because they are busy with fulfilling their needs. It seems that they only focus on their own development, they are working energetically to achieve their own objectives. Seems they are working on their goals without seeking the big picture. It is our duty to make them realize besides to gain the expected development. In the first place, we all should focus on it as a unique, not individually. We should work together to make it happen because this is the place we live, and this is ours. So, it is our responsibility to protect it.
  1. SUGGESTIONS
 
    1. In every persons lives, childhood and adolescence are the most important periods. The pressure brought upon such children during that age influences the future character and development of the child. Therefore, parents, children, society should be convinced about the importance and values of those periods in life.
 
    1. Prevention is better than cure. Most of the important thing is to prevent the causes of dangerous drugs rather than curing the issues. So necessary steps should be taken to eradicate illegal drugs and dangerous drugs.
 
    1. Meaningful publicity with Buddhist teachings should be given about the harm caused to people due to stress, anger, anxiety and also about physical illnesses that are caused by consuming drugs.
 
    1. In some families, there are many economic problems, personality disorders, frustration and disappointment that are likely to occur often. So the causes for such satisfactoriness should be eliminated.
 
 
    1. In Asian countries such as Sri Lankan mother is a given a predominant place in a family and the national influence should exert itself almost automatically and if the mother is careful in advising her children and make them adopt the right way, I feel that our youth will be better than what they are now. Unfortunately, some of our mothers do not rely on this fact. There is saying the hands that rock the cradle can rule the world. This shows the maternal influence that can be exerted as a family. Our mother should think very seriously about this and as here to better principles’ in molding the characters of their children.
 
    1. To a very great extent, our young people are very careful in the choice of having friends. A good friend can lead you in the correct and noble path while a bad friend can lead you to destruction. In Sigalovada SuttaLoard Buddha pointed out who are the noble friend who will lead you to the path of welfare both in this world and the next world and such friends known as “Kalyana Mittra” or noble friends. People should be encouraged in this regard so that they will read and avoid beings influenced by friends who force them to take drugs.
 
    1. Providing group or individual therapies to gain insight into behavior and adequate adjustment.
 
    1. Providing sauce therapy involving modification of environmental situations and improvement of social adjustment.
    2. Further, its ideal to use techniques like:
Meditation methods like Loving kindness.
Use references from Tipitaka.
Reality techniques that Buddha used to help his disciples etc.

As the responsible citizen of the world, it is our duty to help the victims and the ones who are about to undergo these situations in future, to overcome from their bad behaviors and make the whole society aware of the serious drawbacks of consuming the deadly Drugs which make obstacles to the process of Sustainable Development. Therefore, for Sustainable Development, we should more consider those factors and should try to help those people to overcome from the obstacles. It is better to start from family
 


lives by providing pre-marriage guidance with Buddhist teachings. Then it will lead it to have sustainable development. As the youth in the world, we have to change these particular lifestyles, should help others to make the world a better place. We have to get the risk and we should work hard to gain that desire. For this occupation Buddhist suttas, Buddhist teachings, Buddhist counseling methods and especially pre-marriage counseling methods can effectively be used as basic techniques. Otherwise, Sustainable Development is will be a daydream for the world.









***
 


 

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