10 MAINTAINING  A  SUSTAINABLE  SOCIETY VIA “MANGALA SUTTA”

Thứ năm - 09/05/2019 12:20
by Chon Minh Le Khac Chieu




 
MAINTAINING  A  SUSTAINABLE  SOCIETY VIA “MANGALA SUTTA

by Chon Minh Le Khac Chieu*






ABSTRACT

Along with the changes not only in the world political situation but also in economic development together with the weather variation, there have been many great changes that affect the fundamental structure of Vietnam society on lifestyle, on living manner and on social and individual relationships especially the human insensibility. It is high time we hoped for a sustainable society that needs harmonious coordination between economic development and the stability should go with fair democracy and social progress.

There should be fair in the distribution of social utilities in a sustainable society with the involvement of all social strata consciously. People much or less sacrifice some of their privacy of their common interests for the sake of community. Sustainable society is considered to meet the present needs without influencing the ability of future generations. A Sustainable society is believed to be a harmony combination between sustainable developments: in economy, in society, in environment and especially in personal morality. If Individual moralities are not paid attention, the economic results, sometimes also return to zero.

In order to think and sanctify the life of an individual who attains to the supreme happiness of the secular world, the Mangala Sutta


*. Buddhist Researcher, Journalist of The Vietnam Theravada Magazine, Ho Phap Monas- tery, Ba Ria VungTau, Vietnam.
 


can be seen as the guideline of the Buddhists in particular or of the humanity without discriminating: educational level; ethnicity; religion; regional color or political orientation in general In Mangala Sutta, The Buddha gave us a general guide to the lay Buddhists, as a study guide. Buddhist lay men and women need to understand and practice the Buddhas teachings consciously and self-aware. If so they will enter the holy line of liberation.

To follow the ideals of Mangala Sutta set forth in these verses, is the sure way to harmony and progress for the individual as well as for sustainable society, nation and mankind.

1. GENERAL

Vietnamese society in the past decades has been under the impact of the Internet, of the scientific revolution and of the Industrial Revolution 4.0 in the digital economy, together with the climate variations, the natural and human disasters. Along with the disorder in the world political situation, there have been many great changes that affect the fundamental structure of society on lifestyle, on living manner and on social and individual relationships especially the human insensibility. The Society is corrupted and manipulated by corruption, bad interest groups that President Nguyen Phu Trong is now trying to prevent.

A unstable society because of conflicts of interest, robberies, fraud, women and children trafficking, nefarious businesses as providing toxic food into the market, e.t… It is the negative side that Vietnamese society has been suffering for passing decades. It is gradually becoming a specific characteristic of Vietnamese society in the eyes of friends in the world.

Vietnamese society, like many other developing countries in the world, is now trying to find out the way of herself, but it is not yet clear where it is going to be in the map of civilized world.

A society with the legal system that is being completed day after day, laws overlap over and over, the laws are so many that people are lost to find a way out of the problem of litigation.

Do not underestimate the general social status in Vietnam if we want to better our society. We need to have a holistic view as we are
 


at the top of the mountain to see how the society operates, or look at the medical record to find out the illness then choose the most feasible solution for it especially How to cope with the degradation in social morality.

Be straightforward to recognize the  common  realities  of the Vietnam society in the 4.0 era of course there are dominant, positive and negative aspects that can affect the masses of many generations from 5X .to... 9X. The specific manifestations of moral corruption such as school violence of teenagers1; The female studentssexual offenses, the domestic violence; the relationship between human and human values is evaluated on what he or she possesses as much money as possible” but accidentally pushed the social relationships into the material correlations which gradually lost human nature. People do not waive any tricks to survive2. They live in a virtual world, living extrovertedly and self-satisfied with all drugs, cheating one another even killing fellows by the tricks of the trade or despising lives in violating traffic laws Due to the attitude of not respecting the law or in other words, we need to acknowledge that our legal system is not strict enough. Our system of education is continuously changed; therefore, the training project toward our university graduation staffs loose their career disorientation and gradually forming the idea Well paid but less Work. The spiritual unemployment rose together when the life is rife with corruption that the government is trying to prevent and punish.

Degraded social morality is a really worrying issue in Vietnamese society today. Right in the 3rd session of the National Assembly, when mentioning about this issue, Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism Nguyen Ngoc Thien emphasized: Preventing this situation is a fundamental issue to build a sustainable, civilized, safe  society  rich  in  humanity  and  to  consolidate  cultural

1. Thích,CD 2016,Bạo lực học đường: thực trạng, nguyên nn và bin pp giúp đỡ. viewed on Jan 4th2019.
<https://phatgiaobariavungtau.org.vn/index.php/ban-nganh-truc-thuoc/bao-luc-hoc- duong-thuc-trang-nguyen-nhan-va-bien-phap-giup-do-26.html.>
  1. Mai, C 2017, “Xuống cấp về đạo đức xã hội: Không ngăn chặn sớm sẽ mất gốc” viewed on Jan 4th2019.
<https://baomoi.com/xuong-cap-ve-dao-duc-xa-hoi-khong-ngan-chan-som-se-mat-go- c/c/22559615.epi>
 


and moral values - the foundation of national strength in the integration flow.3
    1. SURVEYING ON A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY
 
      1. Concept of a Sustainable Society

TheconceptofSustainableDevelopment,SDhasbeenformedin the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The conference marked the first international effort to develop the action plans and the strategy to move towards a more sustainable development model which was applied to the construction of a sustainable society.3

A sustainable society needs harmonious coordination between economic development and the stability should go with fair democracy and social progress. There should be fair in the distribution of social utilities in a sustainable society with the involvement of all social strata consciously. People much or less sacrifice some privacy of their common interests for the sake of community, protecting the living environment well, and promoting the role of effective contribution of each individual.

.
 
The social amenities include many aspects: such as primary health care, education, gender equality, political responsibility, etc4 The following issues are common concerns of many governments of the developing countries besides Vietnam.
        • The increasing rate of population control.
        • Increasing per capita income.
        • The pace of urbanization increases progressively
        • Controlling the unemployment rate
        • Gender equality
        • Effective policy of eradicating hunger and poverty reduction
 
  1. SDC,S 2011 ”What is sustainable development” viewed on Jan 5th 2019
  1. Nguyễn, H 2003” Lối sống người Việt Nam dưới tác động của toàn cầu hóa hiện nay” Tạp chí Triết học 2018, viewed on Jan 10th-2019, <http://redsvn.net/loi-song- nguoi-viet-nam-duoi-tac-dong-cua-toan-cau-hoa-hien-nay>
 
 
  • Good primary health care
  • Settling well all conflicts

But most the most important thing is the peaceful mind in all people, the essential living cell of the society that ceaselessly contribute to the development of a sustainable society in all aspects.

Sustainable society is considered to meet the present needs without influencing the ability of future generations5.
      1. Criteria for a Sustainable Society

In fact sustainable development of a society is believed to be a harmony combination between sustainable developments in economic, in society, in environment6 and in personal morality based on the following criteria:
      1. Sustainable economic development: is fast and safe growing and quality. Sustainable economic development requires the development of the whole economic system in which attention should be paid to possible measures such as:

a. Reducing gradually wasting the energy consumption and resources.

b. Changing of consumption demand does not harm biodiversity and the environment.
  1. Equalizing in approaching about natural resources, standard of living, health services and education.
  2. Eradicating hunger and reducing poverty effectively.
 
  1. Using clean technology and industrial ecology (recycling, reuse, emission reduction, and renewing used energy.

An economy that is considered sustainable should meet the following  requirements:

 
  1. En.wikipedia.org,  F Wikipedia,”Sustainable_development”  viewed  Dec.15th 2018,            <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development#Culture>
  2. En.wikipedia.org,  F Wikipedia,”Sustainable_development”  viewed  Dec.15th 2018,   <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sustainable_development>
 
 
    1. Having GDP growth and GDP per capita hit high. It is also the criterion for assessing sustainable economic development.

b. Economic growth must be highly efficient, not accept apparent growth at all costs.
      1. Sustainable social development: is assessed by the following criteria.
 
  1. Criteria like the HDI (Human Development Index-HDI), the coefficient of equality income, compared with the targets on education, health, social welfare, cultural enjoyment etc. Besides, social sustainability has a global tendency so the differences between regions are not so great.
 
  1. Sustainable social development focuses on equity and the society always needs to facilitate the human development field and strives to give all people the opportunity to develop themselves and their conditions and to have acceptable living condition.
 
  1. Sustainable social development: as in the Vietnamese model, sustainable social development consists of a number of key contents:
 
  • Population stabilization together with rural development reduce migration pressures on urban.
 
  • Minimizing the negative impact of the environment on urbanization.
  • Raising the level of education, eradicating illiteracy.
  • Conserving the cultural diversity.
- Gender equality, paying attention to gender needs and interests.
  • Enhancing the public participation in decision making processes.
 
  • Promoting the role of individual virtue when joining the community for sustainable society.
      1. Sustainable environmental development

The process of industrialization; modernization; agricultural development; tourism; the process of urbanization, new rural construction, etc. all affect the environment and negatively affect it and natural conditions.
 


Sustainable development of the environment involves the use of such natural elements, and the quality of human habitat must be guaranteed.

Exploiting and reasonably using natural resources must accompany with protecting the environment and improving the quality of the living environment.

Sustainable development of the environment requires that we maintain a balance between protecting the natural environment and the exploitation of natural resources for the benefit of the human race to a certain extent allowing the environment to continue supporting the living conditions for humans and the living organisms on earth.

Sustainable development of the environment include the basic content:
  • Using effectively the natural resources, especially non- renewable ones.
 
  • Developing does not exceed the bearing threshold of the ecosystem.
  • Conserving biodiversity, protecting the ozone layer.
 
  • Controlling and reducing the emissions of the greenhouse effect.
  • Strictly protecting of the sensitive ecosystems
 
  • Minimizing of waste discharge and overcoming the pollution (water, gas, soil, food), improving and restoring the polluted areas7.
      1. Sustainable development of personal ethics

A nation, in other words, a social community that wants to develop sustainably and steadily must include its members who are embedded the basic ethical principles of the society and of the individual. If these principles are not paid attention, the economic results,  sometimes  also  return  to  zero8,  so  morality  plays  an
 
  1. http://www.academia.udu/moitruongvaphatrienbenvung
  2. Hương, G 2018 “Hơn một lần quốc hội lo lắng về đạo đức xã hội” viewed on 26/12/2018, < https://vov.vn/vov-binh-luan/hon-mot-lan-quoc-hoi-lo-lang-ve-dao-
 


important role in forming the personality of each individual, the social members. It helps individuals live responsibly toward the community, contribute positively to the common development. It also helps to maintain a happy family life and it is regarded as the health of a living body. The society in which the rules of ethical standards are respected, maintained and developed, then the society can develop firmly and flourish the national love. This model varies according to each community culture when living together. In general “Morality is a system of rules, social norms and thanks to them people can self-adjust their behaviors in accordance with the interests of the community, and of the society. Today, the development of market economy and international integration, the rules and norms of morality are gradually being changed into new moral values and these new ethical values vary according to the culture of each country9.

Personal lifestyle is a habit that is oriented but not eccentric, depending on  the time of the human being, on material, on economic, on social relationships, on habits, etc... It is a way of expressing all the structures, cultures and cultural characteristics of a person or a community accepted by their members and practiced for a relatively stable in a long period of time10.

In the State religious countries, each has a different leading religious and secular lifestyle, both seem to be contradictory but to some extent they are complementary to each other for social sustainable development. Personal morality is a complex social phenomenon, including: moral awareness, ethical behavior, and ethical relations.

MoralConsciousness: “Being aware of the system of principles and norms of behavior in accordance with past and present


duc-xa-hoi-771769.vov>
  1. Mai, B 2019 “Đạo đức, lối sống và vai trò của đạo đức, lối sống trong đời sống xã hội” Theo sách “Giáo dục đạo đức, lối sống cho học sinh, sinh viên tỉnh Hưng Yên” viewed on 11-1-2019, <http://tuyengiaohungyen.vn/bai-viet/dao-duc-loi-song-va-vai- tro-cua-dao-ducloi-song-trong-doi-song-xa-hoi.aspx>
  2. Nguyễn,H 2003” Lối sống người Việt Nam dưới tác động của toàn cầu hóa hiện nay” Tạp chí Triết học 2018, xem ngày 10-01-2019, <http://redsvn.net/loi-song-nguoi- viet-nam-duoi-tac-dong-cua-toan-cau-hoa-hien-nay>
 


existing moral relationships. On the other hand, it also embraces emotions, human moral sentiments.

Moral behavior: “It is an act of self-consciousness for the community. It is in conformity with the norms and moral values of that society and is motivated by the good of each individual from birth.

Ethical Relation: A system of social relationship, the interaction between person to person; between individuals and societies in moral side. This relationship is moving, changing according to the development process of society. Ethical relations have the characteristics of voluntariness and self-determination.

Self-awareness is expressed in the perception of responsibility and duty of each person in specific situations when participating in moral relations. Voluntary expresses in the needs and the desires of each person in the interest of mutual assistance, or help one another, etc11.

Each social regime has its suitable morality, serving the social and political ideology and the interests of the ruling class. Therefore, moral backgrounds are influenced by the dominant ideological political system. The socialist ethics has a particular category, a social form that is consistent with ideology which means that in addition to the undeniable basic ethical principles, new moral value chains appear in which focus on collective interests and individuals who are responsible for contributing to the formation of that moral value chain. Therefore the object of every development plan is always human centered.
  • Ethics of our feudal society is the discrimination of human class.
 
  • The moral of the capitalist regime upholds the self ” A society in which the egois provoked in consequence: Greed; Hatred; Delusion will lead to personal conflicts, conflicts of social antagonism will increasingly break out drastically.
 
  1. Nguyễn, H 2003 “Lối sống người Việt Nam dưới tác động của toàn cầu hóa hiện nay” Tạp chí Triết học 2018, viewed on 10-01-2019, <http://redsvn.net/loi-song-nguoi- viet-nam-duoi-tac-dong-cua-toan-cau-hoa-hien-nay>
 


- Socialist morality is only in theory but manipulated by factions, and the corruption of Party members the consequences of which also lead to social disorder.
  1. SURVEYING THE 38 BLESSINGS OF MANGALA SUTTA

Developing a sustainable society, the personal factor is very important, we need people with good moral qualities and a spirit of serving the community with a high sense of responsibility. It is the central core of “Human Ethics - Causality. That is “Living without suffering oneself or others.

Today the Indian Parliament has relied heavily on the Buddhas scriptures and precepts as a special inspiration to build their constitution and moral foundation of society even though India has 95% of its population following Hinduism. The Yogi teachers believe in the system of moral foundations that the Buddha established, in the legal structure of ancient and present Indian society.

Thus the Law system of Buddha set out to build a moral foundation for monks and Buddhists to build a standard moral life from family life to other social relations in the community as a result the Mangala Sutta (Suttanipata, 258-269) written in Pali in the 5th century BC, including all 38 blessings came into existence12. This is a very popular sutta in the Southern Buddhist countries and is often chanted and preached by the monks on holidays13.

According to the Buddhas teaching, people build themselves a happy life. This 38-blessings appears in a rather special context that is the time when agriculture developed with bumper crops, farmers’ life became relaxed, so most of them came to the trees or thin forests to hear the hermits called Guru preached the truths in life and at that time there were many schools who reasoned against one another about what supreme happiness was?14.


12. Binh AS 1998, Discourse on the Greatest Blessings” viewed on Dec 5th2018, <https:// www.budsas.org/uni/u-vbud/vbkin020.htm>
  1. Binh AS 2011, Giới thiu Kinh Đim Lànhviewed on 20/12/2018, <https://thuvi- enhoasen.org/a12934/gioi-thieu-kinh-diem-lanh-mangala-sutta>
  2. Thích, ĐH 2011, “Parittapàli (International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University) Kinh hộ Trì bản tụng đọc by Bhikku, p. 23, 65. NXB. Tôn Giáo DL.2011 viewed on Jan 9th 2019.
 


School 1: from the 6th century BC. It was said Listening was considered to be happy, (Suttamangala) having ears is happiness. Listening to good things will make our spiritual life richer.

School 2: they thought that having eyes was happy, seeing is happiness (Ditthamangala) because the life under full of different colors while the blind cannot see all kinds of colors.

School 3: with this school the patriarch advocates thinking is happiness (Cintamangala). They think that “Mindis the most important part and the mind is the one who brings happiness to mankind15.

These three schools have limited aspects on reasoning and awareness and they fought against one another and spread to many countries during the ancient times. This movement was popular and very widespread in Central and Northwestern India and influenced the gods or devas, that led to the fights against among them16.
Such debate lasts for 12 years without winning.

One night at Ky Vien temple (the monastery of Mr. Anàthapindika in Jetavana. Sàvatthì), a Deva prostrated to the Buddha and asked him to explain what caues the ultimate happiness and the Buddha gave this sermon. This sutta can be divided into two parts: the first Dhamma to the 18th is the premise of creating a happy life of an individual in a society if one wants to develop sustainably. According to the Mangala Sutta, individual a human- being, a cell of a society if he is standardized morally to change himself, reducing his aggressiveness, greed, hatred, ignorance and promote the spirit for the sake of the community benefits, he will then contribute efficiently in maintaining a sustainable society. The following Blessings are used for Buddhist lay men and women.


 
  1. Mahà Thongkham Medhivongs,2007 “ Sách 38 pp hạnh phúc (Binh An Son hiu đính) 2nd, p.11- p211 NXB Tôn Giáo 2007 viewed on 27th 2018.
  2. Thích, ĐH 2011 “Parittapàli (International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University) Kinh hộ Trì bản tụng đọc by Bhikku, p. 23,65. NXB. Tôn Giáo DL.2011 viewed on Jan 9th.
 
 
    1. Studying the first 18 Sutras of Mangala Sutta

In order to think and sanctify the life of an individual who attains to the supreme happiness of the secular world, the Mangala Sutta can be seen as the guideline of the Buddhists in particular or of the humanity without discriminating: educational level; ethnicity; religion; regional color or political orientation in general.

Lets calm down and think about these Blessings, It is possible for them to be similar in other religions, but the meanings and the connotations of the blessings are similar.

What is taught in Mangala Sutta is (1) the supreme blessing of human society in maintaining sustainable society if they realize and practice to...17 get away from the evil (bāla); (2) be close to the wise (pandita); (3) honour those who are worthy of honour (pūjā); (4) reside in a suitable locality; (5) have done meritorious actions in the past (katapatā); (6) set oneself in the right course (Attasammāpanidhi); (7) be educated (bāhu-saccam); (8)be skillful in handicraft (sippam); (9) well-trained in discipline (vinayo); (10) be of good speech; (11) support mother and father (filial respect) (mātāpitu); (12) cherish his family (puttadārassa); (13) be engaged in peaceful occupation (anāku); (14) be righteous in conduct (dhammacariyā); (15) be generous in giving (dānā);  (16)  help onerelatives  (ñātakā);  (17)  be  blameless  in  action  (anavajjā);
(18) loathe the evil (viratī pāpā), etc.

The 18 Blessings of Mangala Sutta in terms of essence is really meaningful. They are suitable for secular people who more or less attach to Buddhism, know the right and practice them to transform themselves in everyday life.
    1. Studying the following rest 20 Blessings of the Mangala Sutta

The rest virtues are constantly being considered as: (1) refrain from intoxicants (majjapānā); (2) diligence (Viriyam); (3) be humility (nivato); (4) cultured polite attitude (ravo); (5) living enough, (santutthī); (6) having gratitude (kataññutā); (7) know to listen to the Dharma at the right time (blessingssavanam); (8)
  1. Binh AS 1998,” Discourse on the Greatest Blessings” viewed on Dec 5th2018
 


contented with life (santutthī); (9) be patience (khantī) and endure; (10) be obedient (sovacassatā); (11) usually close to the monks (samana); (12) conversations and exchanges of the Dharma (blessingkacchā); (13) live your homemade (tapo); (14) living with self-restraint (brahmacariya); (15) the perception of the Noble Truths (ariyasacca); (16) Nibbana realization (nibbana sacchikiriyā); (17) the mind is immovable, unshakable in the wind or worldly life (lokadhamma): praise, be lost, glory, joyful; (18) no more sorrows (asoka); (19) living a peaceful life (khema); (20) no longer contaminated (virajam)18.

These qualities are suitable for the large number of Buddhists who want to cultivate according to the Buddha when they understand the nature of the society they are living in, the dukkhas they are suffering. The teachings of the Buddha are realistic rather than the delusion in poetic words about the spiritual path of the poet Hoang Cam19. Thus it is certainly to assert that the remaining of Mangala Sutta relate to the process of practicing dharma of a man who wants to quit or turn his back to society and become an ascetic.
  1. WHAT THBUDDHISTSHOULD DO TMAINTAIN SUSTAINABLE  SOCIETY?

The Buddha offered 5 precepts----Training or  guidelines  to help us live our lives. These trainings are Right Action and Right speech from The Eightfold Path, and they are central to Buddhism. In Buddhist countries all children are taught and practice the 5 precepts-The ethical guide to living a foundation of the spiritual life. Precepts are not commandments but a practice and a training for individuals in society. The individual might like his life better if he/she  do20.
Socially engaged Buddhism brings Buddhist teaching, practice

 
    1. Mahà Thongkham Medhivongs, 2016 “38 Pp Hnh Phúc(Minh Đức Triu Tâm nh hiu đính 1st edn.pdf.p3-p126 viewed on Nov . 15th2018.
    2. Lê thi Thanh Tâm,2018, “Li đi tâm linh trong thơ Hoàng Cm” din đàn Siêu Tâm Thức 12/2/2018,  viewed on 15/12/2018. <http://nghiencuutongiao.info/2018/02/12/loi- di-tam-linh-trong-tho-hoang-cam>
    3. Winston, D 2003 A Buddhist guide for Teens. Ch 19..”1st edn . Library of Congress. The Berkley Publishing Group.NY viewed on Dec 20th.2018.
 


and wisdom together with action for sustainable society. Through Buddhist practice the individuals come to a greater understanding of themselves, and rather denying the world, the wisdom helps us to be effective agents of change. In the first 18 Blessings of Mangala Sutta, The Buddha gave us a general guide to the lay Buddhists, as a study guide. Buddhist lay men and women need to understand and practice the Buddhas teachings consciously and self-aware. If so they will enter the holy line of liberation. At that time in spite of living in the stream of secular life, they have never been defeated by greed; anger and ignorance (One of the three poisons in Buddhism), (sabbattha aparājitā), and wherever they go, they feel peace and safety (sabbattha sotthim gacchanti)21. Being an individual in society. First, he must keep away from the foolish who only chases for the evil temptations of the five desires, know how to approach the wise to learn, know how to reverence those who are worthy of honor. He must: choose the right place to live, know how to do good to have future blessings, know the direction of the main road, be well- educated, be skillful in his career, Have a job that does not cause conflict with other people. In the family, he must know how to care for parents, raise children and wife. He must have generosity, diligently keep the precepts, not addicted to anything, loathe to the sin. He has good deeds, blameless, and loving speech etc.

All these factors have started to make the bright qualities of an individual, a cell of the society and if the society consists of individuals of this type do not ask why society does not gain sustainable development? To follow the ideals set forth in these verses, is the sure way to harmony and progress for the individual as well as for society, nation and mankind. (Narada Maha Thera)22.

Buddhism encourages different methods and experiences in maintaining sustainable society; therefore individuals try their best to apply Buddhas teachings. The true values of the methods are relevant to each individual and his point of view. In fact, the contents of what the Buddha taught are endured through time .The Buddhist

 
    1. Mahà Thongkham Medhivongs, 2007, Sách 38 pp hạnh phúc(Binh An Son hiu đính) 2nd, p.11- p211 NXB Tôn giáo 2007 viewed on 27th 2018.
    2. Thích Nht Đạo, 2017, Giới thiu sách: “Đức Phật và Phật Pp” ch 15..42 .viewed on  5/12/2018  <https://thuvienhoasen.org/a28602/gioi-thieu-sach-duc-phat-va-phat-phap
 


should not only learn the Buddhist principles from denotative meanings described in the sutra texts but also relate those principles into real life experiences to make it easy to understand and apply. In the field of family Buddhist family members especially father or mother should share the experience with their children to find out the best way towards solving problems or settling conflicts in each appropriate situation. The social cell know how to live in harmony and so is the society23.

This model, if it is widely spread around the globe, the world peace will come and mankind will certainly live together in a lasting love.
  1. CONCLUSION

Establishing and maintaining a sustainable society will not be successful if we forget to build the human element. Because it is in any regime either Capitalist or Socialist countries, Human or otherwise people who always play a key role in planning of every policy, every project. If People are peaceful, the new society develops sustainably and the regime will exist and will constantly improve its prestige in the international arena. Every member in society must know how to interact and support each other for sustainable development. All policies have impacts on sustainable society such as:
  1. Census policy (It is difficult to give accurate figures for the world population because some countries can not or do not conduct population censuses.
  2. The development trend of the world is a matter of concern.
 
  1. Population and income (world population continued to increase, especially in the third world countries, the income decreases in inverse proportion, so the government must know how to balance between the rate of population growth and the rate of increase in personal income24.
 
  1. Thích, NT 2015, Engaged Buddhism. Social change and World PeaceCông ty cphn in Người Lao động. Q6, Tp.HCM viewed on Jan 5th2019.
  2. F, 2012 “ bn vng vmt xã hội “ viewed on Dec 25th, 2018 <https://tailieu.vn/doc/ ben-vung-ve-mat-xa-hoi-1267418.html>
 
 
  1. The government must comprehend the migration to urban population growth that leads to unbalance to many dilemmas such as:
 
  • The issue of environmental sanitation is very worrying due to lack of clean water, littering waste disposal, Sewage (insanitary waste water).
 
  • The issue of primary health care is complex: Bacteria grow fast at temperatures above 75°F, or 24°C.
  • Traffic congestion affects strongly to the city dwellers.
 
  • Other social issues like satisfying basic needs is not yet good response.

- Social Security system is incomplete and unreliable, low income, gender, inequality between rich and poor, lack of clean water, lack of energy and living conditions does not meet the peoples need, and the inadequate education level as well.

From the implications, the moral education through Buddhism is really necessary for every individual to understand himself the reality of society based on the Law of Cause and Effect (Karma law) that trains himself awareness, in order not to suffer oneself and others, and join hand to keep society sustainable.

Trying to practice more good will have a better future. Practice training oneself as the Buddha taught because Buddhism is a lifestyle, not a religion like other religions25.

Buddhism, if applied to secular life, is the Engaged Buddhism. The skill of Buddhism in the end is the sanctification of social life which is very beneficial to the majority and individuals in the community with rich spiritual life when every member imbues with Buddha teachings through Mangala Sutta. They will certainly contribute positively in maintaining a sustainable society for the present and future26.


 
  1. Thanh quang, 2005” Đạo Đức Nn Bn - Nn Qu” p 6. Viewed on 7/12/2018
  1. Din đàn người đưa tin (Hội Lut Gia Vit Nam), 2013 “Pht giáo và sphát trin bn vng của thế giớiviewed on 10/01/2019. <https://www.nguoiduatin.vn/phat-giao-va-su- phat-trien-ben-vung-cua-the-gioi-a80166.html>
 


 

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