Thứ năm - 09/05/2019 13:16
by Mohit Sharma


by Mohit Sharma *


Sustainable developmentmay be defined as the usage of natural resources pursuit in a way to fulfilling the todays need in such a way of without ignoring the future generations need. Responsible consumption and sustainable development are complementary to each other. In other way, sustainable development only possible with the practice of responsible consumption. The rising profit- goaded global economy is driven by unbridled development and gigantism. Moreover, the international market is overwhelmingly commanded and run by the global development, consumption and sale of unnecessary commodities. Consumerism grow rapidly only when consumption is flow limitlessly and worthlessly without consideration of essence of utilization. In other words, consumerism is wholly based upon endless and senseless consumption. The notion of sustainability’ first came into existence in the social science from 1970s when it was put to use to explain an economy in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems.(R. Stivers, The Sustainable Society: Ethics and Economic Growth, Philadelphia: Westminister Press, 1976).

A Buddhist concept of economic development avoids gigantism, especially machines, which tend to control rather than serve human

*. Research scholar, Department of Buddhist Studies Delhi University, DELHI-110007, India.

beings. For Buddhists, material satisfaction can only fetch a striating point for the pursuit of higher goals. Spiritual health and material well-being should be work together. This paper mainly consists of two parts. In the first part, we shell explore the possible efforts and policies changes which may help in attain the sustainable development.Thesecondone,weshellpresentBuddhistperspective on the way and means in order to get sustainable development.

Sustainable development and responsible expenditure are mitigations and remedies for what? In other way, what is the problem for that sustainable  development  and  responsible  usage  became as an antidote that is modernism. Modernism, which grown in modern Europe from about the seventeenth century onwards, more or less became widespread across the globe in their influence. The essence of modernism is self-consciousness and self-knowingness. Modernity is the rejection of fake rationality and coherence among the art, music and enlightenment thinking. Thus, today we are living in modern society renders technical and scientific atmosphere. So called science and modernity brought drastic change and massive transformation in socio-political order. The behavior and feelings of the modern human are now changed in day-to-day life.

Recent time is a time of tangible and realizable upliftment of human life style. According to modernization, development is ones individual betterment in order to facilitate profits to his near and dear one. There is no place remain for collective society. Furthermore, in the absence of harmony and brotherhood does society make any sense. In modern society the collection of capital overwhelmingly as a result of fetching the television computer expansive cars big homes and many more other negative facilities. The innocence of children turns into wicked fellow. There was a time when kids enjoyed themselves being kids. But in these days, even at the beginning of their age, children are chipping in adult activities with hazardous consequences. Television, movies and internet have been spread everywhere, a kid turns are bombarded with sexual suggestions and demonstrations.
These days, the role of market has also changed, in past when

the market was run only demand and supply. But now the meant of demandhas also transformed, now demand is forcefully and deceptively generated by business giants. In the age of globalization, the economic system, the multinational firms use several ways in terms of the media and propaganda to generate more and more demand among the masses for items. Deliberately advertising creates an unnecessary demand among the people that fosters a climate of self-involvement, playing on peoples needs for security, happiness and acceptance. By setting up idealized stereotype, advertisements status envy, anxiety, health fears, boost greed and at root, a sense of an inadequacy and dissatisfaction. An idea has set up in the mind that the more you consume the better you are. Among the society there is a stereotype tendency that how to feel better and show oneself different than others in such a way to buy the unnecessary goods and articles. There was a time when the reliability of an item depended on his durability but now the durability doesn’t matter. Newness of the things is far better than durability in terms of demonstration the status. In this context, how can a demand generated by concern companies? The related firms frequently modify their goods in the name of betterment of technology. For instance, the mobile companies have been changing in their models in terms of look-wise and technology. As a result, the possession of old one has been outdated and an anxiety emerges, competing with society. The consumption of intoxicants has been prevailing among the masses in the name of life style and fake status. The intoxication of over-consumption not only offer any true satisfaction, but also it actually feeds anxiety tied to self-identity. A Buddhist alternative in this context, Buddha suggests, are the teachings of generosity and renunciation in which one sense of self is tied to nothing, since all things are impermanent and perishable.

The feeling of happiness and comfort generally go along with the idea of a human being free. Freedom is of two types: external freedom and inner freedom.

As per the way of western life, they people usually talk about external freedoms. External freedom is manifested in the behave of outside actions in the way: freedom of speech, political freedom, social freedom, freedom of choice and freedom from responsibilities

towards society and so on, to attain individual satisfaction. With an individual attitude, people get insecure and upset when these freedoms are restricted. People who guard and seeks this kind of external freedom usually compete against one another. This way of life always has been protected and praised by the legal lows in the western world. Sometimes, this set of freedom create a vex and agitation among the masses. Ultimately it has caused increased selfishness and wide difference among the people.

Second type of freedom, very often mentioned in Buddhism, is inner freedom. In this state of mind, enlightened man, who has been realized the cause of suffering and ignorance, release his mind from all bondage. One meditate and observes carefully his own mind, working with six senses (hearing, taste, sight, smell, tough and mind) to get rid of the basic ignorance which has caused ones fear, hostility and suspicion and which could finally lead one to retaliate, kill or hurt others. In this process, firstly, we have to subjugate all limitations of self-concept and the entanglement of thoughts that can break the series of emotions and false perceptions. Secondly, we must consolidate an effort to release craving, delusion and anger which possess the three main causes of people feeling distracted and unhappy. Cravings are generally peoples urges for everyday things such as clothes, jewelry, love, food and other belongings. In order to achieve these demands making ourselves slave to them. Thirdly, we need to release inhabitation and inner struggle. Sometimes in our exploration for the permanent happiness, we end up hurting other people in our surrounding through are careless deeds.

Furthermore, consumerism could make us victims. If we intake toxic products, habit would be formed, and we could slave to alcohol, tobacco, drugs and many more, craving to enjoy their taste. We think that these activities are improve our status in society. The main cause behind it that we act under the influence of other. In other words, during demonstration we think how to get attention, and sometimes, we forget the good or bed intensity of show. In order to overcome these problems Buddha suggests five basic rules: always telling truth, never take article without the permission of owner, never hurt anyone, maintain the ones chastity and strictly not to use the toxicants. Ones sense of activity, dressing and habits in

communication with one another, are called the persons character. The Buddha proposed: “It is not right to think that character doesn’t change.” This point of view could make us accept easily the fate. If we were in social and financial crises, we would always come to a standstill, and have a thought: This is worthless to do ones best, and become slave of Godhead.

The first step towards the inner freedom is to strive by Dhyāna (meditation); give up the faulty thought process that tells us that a fate rules over happiness and unhappiness, and they are pre- destined. Arrange a vicissitude life style, would a vicissitude life. Arrange a noble life and would be a noble life. Furthermore, we should practice to observe our mind as a mirror that would reflect a true image about what is in front of it. If we had the desire of relish, possession, sex, bad wont and so on… Then, the mirror of the mind would give us an image of good human being possess fully lost inner freedom and ones delight. A good action would bring a good reward. If one makes effort in doing good deeds, the fruit must spread in terms of happiness and peace. The monastic life in Buddhism do not attach worldly entities in order to keep their mind free thats why they can study and exercise successfully. We are not happy anywhere until unless we exercise inner freedom on the basis of morality and wisdom.

Buddhism also suggest that you are not only responsible for your future liabilities but your environment and surroundings also causative. In the other way one cannot be restrain his self, from the activity of his locality. If we are living in healthy, co-operative and homogeneous society, the effect and influence of the society must affect us; and if we are surviving with a society such as corruption, adultery and toxicants prevailed all over then in the same way we would affect negatively. Furthermore, Buddha says that we are only the responsible for deeds and their fruits, you must sow what you reap. A central idea behind it that we should choose their company carefully pursuit ones deeds in a way that negative deeds been eliminating and positive deeds been swaying. In this process, firstly, one should recognize the ignorance’ then identify the cause behind this ignorance and then combating this negativity use the technique of Dhyāna; avoid the faulty thought process that tells us

that a fate rules over happiness and unhappiness. In the final step an aspirant should follow the vicissitude life.
Another fantastic notion of Buddhism is: Brahmavira. Rare is birth as a human being.
Hard is the life of morals.”
Do not let slip this opportunity.”

That consists four sublime states: first, a powerful destructive vice in man is anger (dośa). The sweet virtue that overcome this iniquity and sublimes human is loving-kindness (mettā). Second is cruelty (hiṃsā) that is responsible for several atrocities and intense aversion prevalent in the society. Compassion (karuṇā) is antidote for this. Jealousy (issā) is another evil force that poisons ones system and leads the dangerous competition and unhealthy rivalries. The most suitable remedies for this contaminated mind is appreciative joy (muditā). Lastly, there are two universal characteristics  that upset the mental equipoise of human, Namely: aversion to the non- pleasurable and attachment to the pleasurable. These two contrary forces can be wiped out by developing equanimity (upekkhā). These virtues tend to elevate human. They make one divine in this life itself. They can transform man into a superman.




Andersen, D and Smith, H (eds.) (1913) The Sutta-Nipāta, Pali Text Society, London.

Chapple, Christopher Key (1993) Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions. Albany: SUNY Press.

Badiner, A H (ed.), Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology, Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1990.

Batchler, M and K Brown (eds.). (1992). Buddhism and Ecology, London: Cassell.

Carrithers, M (1983). The Forest Monks of Sri Lanka: An Anthropological and Historical Study, Oxford University Press, Delhi.

Chapple, C K (1993). Nonviolence to Animals, Earth, and Self in Asian Traditions, SUNY Press, Albany.

Cooper, David E., and Simon P. James. (2005). Buddhism, Virtue and Environment. Ashgate, Burlington, VT.
De Silva, Lilley. (1987). The Buddhist Attitude towards Nature. in
K. Sandell (ed.), Buddhist Perspective on the Eco-crisis, The
Wheel Publication # 346/348, Kandy: Buddhist Publication
Society, 1987: 9-29.

De Silva, P (1990). Buddhist Environmental Ethics. in A.H. Badiner (ed.), Dharma Gaia: A Harvest of Essays in Buddhism and Ecology, Parallax, Berkeley.

Dwivedi, O P (ed.), (1989). World Religions and the Environment, Gilanjal Publishing House, New Delhi.

Fausböll, V (ed.) (1977-1897) The Jātaka, 6 vols. Luzac& Co, London.

Feer, M L (1884-1898). The Saṃyutta Nikāya, 5 vols. Pali Text Society, London.

Hanh, Thich Nhat (2012). Natureand Non-Violence. http://www. awakin.org/read/view.php?tid”771 accessed on 18 May 2013.

Hall, H Fielding. (1902). The Soul of a People, Macmillan, London. Harris, Ian. (1991). How environmentalist is Buddhism?.Religion,
21: 101-14.

Harvey, P (2000). An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, values, and issues, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge: 150- 86.

Henning, Daniel H. (2002). Buddhism and Deep Ecology. First Books Library, Bloomington, IN.

Jayawickrama, N A (1974). Buddhavaṃsa and Cariyāpiaka, new edition, Pali Text Society, London.
Kabilsingh, C (1987). How Buddhism Can Help Protect Nature. in
S. Davies (ed.), Tree of Life: Buddhism and Protection of Nature,
Geneva: Buddhist Perception of Nature, 1987: 7-16.

Kaza, Stephanie. (2010). How Much Is Enough? Buddhist Perspectives on Consumerism. In Richard Paine (ed.) How Much Is Enough? Consumerism, Buddhism, and the Human Environment. Wisdom Publications, Boston: 39-61.

Macy, Joanna. (2007). World as Lover, World as Self: Courage for Global Justice and Ecological Renewal. Parallax, Berkeley, CA.

McDermott, J P (1989). Animals and Humans in Early Buddhism, Indo-Iranian Journal, vol. 32, no. 2: 269-280.

Morgan, P & C Lawton (eds.) (1996). Ethical issues in Six Religious Traditions, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
Morris, R and Hardy, E (eds.) (1885-1900) The Aguttara Nikāya
(1885-1900), 5 vols.,Pali Text Society, London.

Nikam, N A and R McKeon. (1959). The Edicts of Asoka, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Oldenberg, H and Pischel, R (eds.) (1990) The Thera- and Therīgāthā, 2ndedn. with Appendices by K.R. Norman & L. Alsdorf, Pali Text Society, Oxford.

Oldenberg, H. (ed.) (1879-1883). The Vinaya Piaka, 5 vols. Pali Text Society, London.

Payne, Richard, (ed.) (2010). How Much Is Enough? Consumerism, Buddhism, and the Human Environment. Wisdom Publications, Boston.

Rhys Davids, T W and Carpentier, J E (eds.) (1890-1911) The Dīgha Nikāya, 3 vols. Pali Text Society, London.
Schumacher, E F (1973). Small is Beautiful, Harper & Row, London. Schmithausen, L (1991). The Problem of the Sentience of Plants in
Earliest Buddhism, International Institute for Buddhist Studies,

Suzuki,DT(1959). Zen and Japanese Culture,BollingenFoundation, New York.

Tambiah, S J (1984). The Buddhist Saints of the Forest and the Cult of Amulets, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tobias, M. (1998). Deep Ecology. in M. Bekoff and C.A. Meaney (eds.), Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut: 128-29.

Trenckner, V and Chalmers, R (eds.), 1888-1896. TheMajjhima Nikāya, 3 vols. Pali Text Society, London.

Tucker, M E and D R Williams (eds.) (1997). Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds, Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, Cambridge, MA.

Venturini, R (1990). A Buddhist View on Ecological Balance. Dharma World, 17, March-April, 1990: 19-23.

White, Lynn Jr. (1967). The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis, Science, 155, 10 March 1967: 1203-1207.


Tổng số điểm của bài viết là: 0 trong 0 đánh giá

Click để đánh giá bài viết

Những tin mới hơn

Những tin cũ hơn

Bạn đã không sử dụng Site, Bấm vào đây để duy trì trạng thái đăng nhập. Thời gian chờ: 60 giây